A Few PNW Native Plants


[Home] [Books] [Plants & Wildlife] [Organizations] [Nurseries] [Events] [More] [Index]
[Plants] [Butterflies] [Insects] [Birds] [Mammals] [Herptiles]

A quick list of useful native plants gathered from several sources, especially the Backyard Wildlife Sanctuary program from the Washington State Department of Wildlife. Numbers in parentheses are the number of species which directly use the plant for food. More may use it for shelter and nesting. The general rule is the more vegetation the better!



Evergreen Trees

Abies amabilis (silver fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(6)
large seed crops every 2-3 years; slower growing in shade
Abies concolor (white fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(6)
survives very poor soils; cool, deep moist soil
Abies grandis (grand fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(6)
deep moist alluvial soil
Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(6), Butterfly larvae
slow growing, cool moist soil
Abies procera (noble fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(6)
seed not abundant. rapid growth. full sun; cool, deep moist soil
Arbutus menziesii (Madrone) Evergreen Tree
Birds(3), Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Calocedrus decurens (incense cedar) Evergreen Tree
Butterfly larvae
sw OR and nw CA.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Lawson cypress) Evergreen Tree
Birds(11)
sw OR and nw CA coasts
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Alaska yellow cedar) Evergreen Tree
Birds(11)
avoid cold dry winds and high summur heat. Large seed crops, but irregular
Juniperus scopulorus (Rocky Mountain juniper) Evergreen Tree
Birds(18)
drought and salt spray tolerant. Dioecious (female bears cones). Often a shrub.
Picea engleimanni (spruce) Evergreen Tree
Birds(13)
large seed crop every 3-6 years. deep rich loamy moist soil.
Pinus contorta (shore pine) Evergreen Tree
Birds(17), Butterfly larvae
Full sun, nearly any soil. Cones open only after fire.
Pinus monticola (Western white pine) Evergreen Tree
Birds(21)
Large, extensive root system (wind resistant).
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) Evergreen Tree
Birds(21)
Mostly eastern WA, OR. grows in nearly any soil.
Pinus sitchensis (Sitka spruce) Evergreen Tree
Birds(13)
Foggy, moist air. Fast growing, needs lots of room.
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) Evergreen Tree
Birds(2), Butterfly larvae
Fast growing, large cone crop every 5-7 years. Provides shelter, nest sites and insects.
Taxus brevifolia (yew) Evergreen Tree
Birds(4)
Dioecious (female produces seeds).
Thuja plicata (Western red cedar) Evergreen Tree
Birds(5), Butterfly larvae
shade tolerant. moist soil.
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) Evergreen Tree
Birds(7)
Protect from wind and sun. Needs space.
Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock) Evergreen Tree
Birds(7)
Slow growing. Cool moist soil.

Deciduous Trees

Acer circinatum (vine maple) Deciduous Tree
Birds(8), Butterfly larvae
Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple) Deciduous Tree
Birds(9)
Fast growing, needs space.
Alnus rubra (red alder) Deciduous Tree
Birds(6), Butterfly larvae
Nitrogen fixer, tolerates brackish soil. Forms thickets.
Betula papyrifera (paper birch) Deciduous Tree
Butterfly larvae
Hardy, fast growing. Seeds especially liked by goldfinch, siskin, juncos. Better than european birch (Betula pendula).
Cornus nutalli (pacific dogwood) Deciduous Tree
Birds(25), Butterfly larvae
Protect from sun and mechanical damage.
Crataegus douglasii (black hawthorn) Deciduous Tree
Birds(10), Hummingbirds, Butterfly larvae
Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) Deciduous Tree
Birds(5), Butterfly larvae
Will tolerate standing water in winter. Dioecious (females produce seed).
Malus fusca (oregon crabapple, pacific crabapple) Deciduous Tree
Birds(20), Hummingbirds, Butterfly larvae
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) Deciduous Tree
Butterfly larvae
Suckers, invasive roots. Produces no seeds that are eaten by wildlife, but provides shelter.
Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) Deciduous Tree
Birds
big, fast growing. Provides shelter and nesting but seeds are not readily eaten.
Prunus emarginata (bitter cherry) Deciduous Tree
Birds(28), Butterfly larvae
Quercus garryana (garry oak, oregon post oak) Deciduous Tree
Birds(17), Butterfly larvae
dry gravelly soils.
Rhamnus purshiana (cascara buckthorn, bitterbark) Deciduous Tree
Birds(13), Butterfly larvae
Wide variety of soils, prefers moist. Does poorly in urban areas.
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) Deciduous Tree
Birds(20)
Often shrubby. Suckers. Seeds not highly valued by wildlife.
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Deciduous Tree
Birds(20)
Sometimes shrubby. Suckers. Seeds not highly valued by wildlife.
Salix scouleriana (Scouler's willow) Deciduous Tree
Butterfly larvae
Provides cover but not useful seeds. Roots invasive.

Evergreen Shrubs

Ceanothus veitchianus (mountain lilac) Evergreen Shrub
Birds, Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Evergreen Shrub
Birds(2), Butterfly adult
provides good cover, fruit not highly valued by wildlife.
Juniperus communis (common juniper) Evergreen Shrub
Birds(18)
Dioecious (female bears cones); hardy, slow growing
Mahonia aquifolium (oregon grape) Evergreen Shrub
Birds(6), Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Myrica californica (California wax myrtle) Evergreen Shrub
Birds
Rhododendron macrophyllum (pacific rhododendron) Evergreen Shrub
Butterfly adult
Vaccinium ovatum (evergreen huckleberry) Evergreen Shrub
Birds(13), Butterfly larvae

Deciduous Shrubs

Amelanchier alnifolia (serviceberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(21)
Betula glandulosa (scrub birch, bog birch) Deciduous Shub
Birds(9)
Cornus stolonifera (red osier dogwood) Deciduous Shub
Birds(24), Butterfly larvae
Full sun, moist soil.
Holodiscus discolor (ocean spray) Deciduous Shub
Hummingbirds, Butterfly larvae
Lonicera involucrata (twinberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(15), Hummingbirds
Osmaronia cerasiformus (Indian plum) Deciduous Shub
Birds(6), Butterfly adult
Dioecious (females produce berries)
Philadelphia lewisii (mock orange) Deciduous Shub
Birds, Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Physocarpus capitatus (western ninebark) Deciduous Shub
Birds
Potentilla fruticosa (cinquefoil) Deciduous Shub
Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Purshia tridentata (bitterbrush) Deciduous Shub
Butterfly adult
Rhododendron occidentale (wild azalea) Deciduous Shub
Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult
Ribes divaricatum (gooseberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(10), Hummingbirds
Ribes sanguineum (red flowering current) Deciduous Shub
Birds(10), Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Rosa gymnocarpa (bald-hip rose) Deciduous Shub
Birds(12), Butterfly larvae
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(25)
Rubus pedatus (strawberry bramble, creeping raspberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(20)
Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(25)
Sambuca racemosa (red elderberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(29), Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult
Sorbus sitchensis (Sitka mountain ash) Deciduous Shub
Birds(7)
Spiraea douglasii (hardhack) Deciduous Shub
Birds, Butterfly larvae
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(10), Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult
Spreads to form thicket. Berries not highly desired by wildlife.
Vaccinium parvifolium (red huckleberry) Deciduous Shub
Birds(13), Butterfly adult
Viburnum opulus (cranberry) Deciduous Shub
Butterfly larvae
Fruit not highly valued.

Other (perennials, groundcovers, vines)

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Agastache occidentalis (horse mint) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting) Perennial
Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Angelica lucida (Angelica) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Apocynum sp. (dogbane) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Arctostaphylos columbiana (manzanita) Evergreen Groundcover
Birds(3), Hummingbirds
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnik) Evergreen Groundcover
Birds(3), Butterfly larvae
Arctostaphylos x media (manzanita) Evergreen Groundcover
Birds(3)
Armeria maritima (sea thrift) Groundcover
Butterfly adult
Cardimine sp. (bittercress) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry) Deciduous Groundcover
Birds(18)
rich, moist, acid soil. Spreads.
Delphinium nudicaule (delphinium) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Dicentra formosa (pacific bleeding heart) Perennial
Hummingbirds, Butterfly larvae
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Fragaria chiloensis (wild strawberry) Groundcover
Birds, Butterfly larvae
Geum macrophyllum (geum) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Gilia aggregata (scarlet gilia) Annual
Butterfly adult
biennial
Gilia capitata (globe gilia) Annual
Butterfly adult
Hostieracium sp. (hawkweed, hawkbit) Annual
Butterfly larvae
Lathyrus littoralis (grey beach peavine) Vine
Butterfly adult
Linnaea borealis (twinflower) Groundcover
Birds
Lomatium sp. (desert parsley) Perennial
Butterfly adult, Butterfly larvae
Lonicera ciliosa (trumpet honeysuckle) Deciduous Vine
Birds(15), Hummingbirds
Lonicera hispidula (hairy honeysuckle) Deciduous Vine
Hummingbirds, Butterfly adult
Mahonia aquifolia () Evergreen Groundcover
Butterfly adult
Mahonia nervosa (low oregon grape) Evergreen Groundcover
Birds(6), Butterfly adult
Mimulus spp. (monkey flower) Perennial
Hummingbirds
Penstemon barrettiae (penstemon) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Petasites frigidus (colts foot) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Phlox paniculata (perennial phlox) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Sidalcea oregana (checker mallow) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Solidago canadensis (goldenrod) Perennial
Butterfly adult
Urtica dioica (nettle) Perennial
Butterfly larvae
Viola sempervirens (viola) Perennial
Butterfly larvae