An Annotated Checklist of the Spiders of Washington [1988]

Checklist of Spider Species Known from Washington


[Home] [Introduction] [Map] [Checklist] [Appendix] [References] [Index to Genera]

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

§ First verifiable Washington record
M Male
F Female
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (immediate preceding record)
UWBM Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington
ICZN International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Third Edition (International Union of Biological Sciences, 1985)
Ref.: Reference to currently most useful description(s)
W Worley (1932)

Order Araneida

Suborder Mygalomorphae

Family MECICOBOTHRIIDAE

Hexura picea Simon
H. picea of W. Ref.: Gertsch and Platnick 1979.
6023 6317 6335 6336 6639 6721 6723 6821 6822 6918 6921 6922 7026 7028 7032 7034 7041 7131 7223 7234 7235 7332 7417 7418 7433 7519 7533 7536 7537

Family DIPLURIDAE

Microhexura idahoana Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Coyle 1981.
6122 6216 6717 6815 8970

Family ANTRODIAETIDAE

Antrodiaetus pacificus (Simon)
Brachybothrium pacificum of W. Ref.: Coyle 1971.
I anticipate that the Blue Mountains populations dubiously placed under A. pacificus by Coyle (1971) will prove to be distinct.
6335 6771 6817 6821 7032 7223 7235 7524 7533 7536 7623 7833 7934 8123

§ Antrodiaetus occultus Coyle
Ref.: Coyle 1971 (M only). MF in UWBM.
6121 6122

Antrodiaetus pugnax (Chamberlin)
Brachybothrium shoshoneum of W. Ref.: Coyle 1971.
7624

§ Antrodiaetus montanus (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Coyle 1971.
6771 6992 8893

Antrodiaetus hageni (Chamberlin)
Brachybothrium hageni of W. Ref.: Coyle 1971.
6902

Antrodiaetus cerberus Coyle
Ref.: Coyle 1971.
8970

§ Antrodiaetus sp. #1
A very large species; MF in UWBM (sexes from different localities, but association probable).
5915 7105

Suborder Araneomorphae

Haplogyne Families:

NOTE: use of the words "haplogyne" and "cribellate" does not constitute their acceptance as taxa; these are convenience groupings only.

Family SEGESTRIIDAE

Segestria pacifica Banks
S. pacifica of W. The only description is the essentially useless one of Banks (1891), who cited "Washington State" as the locality. Worley (1932) clarified the type locality as Olympia (7028) and reported specimens from Friday Harbor (8530). My specimens may or may not be this species.
7222 7623 8029 8147[MCZ]

Family PLECTREURIDAE

§ Plectreurys tristis Simon
Ref.: Gertsch 1958.
6999 6900 7099

Family TELEMIDAE

Usofila pacifica (Banks)
Ochyrocera pacifica of W. Ref.: Banks 1894b; Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (discussed under U. oregona). Gertsch (1973) synonymized Usofila under the European Telema with little discussion; Brignoli (1980) rejected the synonymy. I prefer to accept Usofila pending publication of Gertsch's evidence for the synonymy. Usofila species at hand show significant differences from Telema tenella Simon (as redescribed by Fage 1913), in size and position of spiracles, shape of sternum, female palp (patella enlarged in Usofila), chelicerae (enlarged distally in Usofila), and spermatheca (directed posteriad in Usofila). Male U. pacifica are very rare (I have over 250 females and no males), but male specimens do exist (V. Roth, in litt.).
5714 5915 6022 6023 6028 6122 6418 6721 6922 6928 7026 7041 7110 7223 7235 7319 7323 7332 7416 7417 7418 7433 7517 7518 7519 7520 7522 7523 7524 7531 7536 7603 7617 7621 7623 7624 7710 7712 7714 7718 7723 7815 7816 7839 7903 7931 7934 8035 8118 8212 8214 8217 8497 8425 8517 8520 8522 8523 8525 8618 8624 8973 8918 8920 8921

§ Usofila nr. oregona Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a. These specimens do not correspond exactly to the description of U. oregona, but appear to be distinct from U. pacifica.
5915 7303 7718

Family OONOPIDAE

§ Orchestina saltitans Banks
Ref.: Banks 1894b; Kaston 1948. The Seattle population is presumably introduced (perhaps from the Northeastern U.S.).
7623

§ Orchestina sp. #1
MF in UWBM. A distinctive native species which may be O. utahana Chamberlin and Ivie (1935), but the latter's three-line description is insufficient for diagnosis.
7303

Cribellate Entelegyne Families:

Family OECOBIIDAE

§ Oecobius annulipes Lucas
Ref.: Shear 1970.
7523 7623

Family ULOBORIDAE

Hyptiotes gertschi Chamberlin and Ivie
H. cavatus of W. Ref.: Muma and Gertsch 1964.
5915 6072 7026 7131 7235 7313 7323 7418 7420[MCZ] 7433 7507 7519 7521 7523 7524 7533 7616 7621 7623 7703 7712 7714 7718 7722 7730 8029 8122 8214 8624 8873 8921

§ Uloborus nr. diversus Marx
Ref.: Muma and Gertsch 1964. My one female does not correspond closely to Muma and Gertsch's illustrations, but on geographic grounds the identification seems likely.
7199

Family DICTYNIDAE

See under Agelenidae for comments on Lehtinen's (1967) expansion of this family, rejected here. The revision of Dictynidae by Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958) was a major accomplishment but is little help in identifying female Dictyna, for which careful study of external and internal genitalia (epigynum, spermathecae, and associated ducts) and somatic characters is needed.

Argenna yakima Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958): "White River, 5000' " (6816); type locality (foot of Emmons Glacier, Mt. Rainier).

§ Brommella monticola (Gertsch and Mulaik)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958 (as Pagomys monticola). This genus may not be dictynid; it was placed next to Cicurina, here considered an Agelenid, by Lehtinen (1967).
6122

Tricholathys spiralis Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6873

§ Tricholathys rothi Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6632 8029

§ Tricholathys sp. #2
F in UWBM.
6901

§ Tricholathys sp. #3
F in UWBM.
7696

§ Tricholathys sp. #4
F in UWBM.
6072

Lathys delicatula (Gertsch and Mulaik)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
A record from "Friday Harbor, Washington" (8530) was considered doubtful by Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958), as the species was not otherwise recorded closer than the central Rocky Mountains. Several species not otherwise found in western Washington have disjunct populations in the Olympic rain shadow (including Friday Harbor), so I prefer to accept this record pending further evidence.

§ Lathys sp. #1
F in UWBM.
8999

Mallos niveus O. Pickard-Cambridge
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
8372 8597 8694

Mallos pallidus (Banks)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6209 6910[MCZ] 7403 7998

§ Dictyna nr. bicornis Emerton
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
This species and D. terranea, with several others, were placed by Lehtinen (1967) in Phantyna, which had been synonymized under Dictyna by Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958). Lehtinen gave no reasons for revalidating Phantyna, and seems to have been confused about the distinction, since he listed Dictyna mandibularis Taczanowski under both Dictyna and Phantyna. These species appear to me to be typical of Dictyna, and I follow Chamberlin and Gertsch in considering Phantyna a synonym.
6688

Dictyna terranea Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6894 6992 7002 7403 8680

Dictyna calcarata Banks
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958. F easily mistaken for a Mallos or Tricholathys.
5714 7403 7623

§ Dictyna minuta Emerton
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6704 8395

§ Dictyna brevitarsus Emerton
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6513 7009 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7211 7730 7833 8372 8698

Dictyna bostoniensis Emerton
D. sociella of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7502

Dictyna major Menge
D. vincens of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6072 6016 6216 6504 6632 6719 6892 6814[MCZ] 6828 6905 6928 6934 7027 7131 7133 7211 7212 7235 7475 7414 7520 7696 7623 7723 7809 7931 7934 8029 8372 8410 8572 8578 8506

§ Dictyna tridentata Bishop and Ruderman
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7009 8918

Dictyna coloradensis Chamberlin
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6072 6386 6488 6673 6688 6704 6892 6894 6804 6991 6992 6900 7099 7385 7475 7593 7683 7693 7696 7783 8597

Dictyna saepei Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7099 7299 7303 7602 7623 7703 7882 7998 8182 8122
The following named Dictyna species belong to the subgenus Emblyna Chamberlin; Lehtinen (1967) treated this as a genus, but gave no reasons for the change.

§ Dictyna manitoba Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7475 8372

§ Dictyna uintana Chamberlin
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6072 6804 6806 7107 7475 7507 7903 8970

Dictyna peragrata Bishop and Ruderman
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
5916 6016 6018 6216 6336 7730

§ Dictyna chitina Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958 (M only). MF in UWBM.
5714 5715 6905 7009 7108 7110 7205 7305 7603 7604 7703 7903 8395 8506 8699 8790 8997

Dictyna francisca Bishop and Ruderman
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6504

Dictyna annulipes (Blackwall)
D. insolens of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6632 7475 8372

§ Dictyna phylax Gertsch and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
8572

§ Dictyna horta Gertsch and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6992

Dictyna olympiana Chamberlin
D. olympiana of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7623

Dictyna borealis cavernosa Jones
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
Probably this form will one day be restored to full species status. The main justification for reducing it to subspecies (an unusual category among spiders) was that "until more information on the typical species is available, it seems logical to take this course" (Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958).
6122 6817 8506 8706

§ Dictyna completa Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6297 6488 6892 6894 6991 6992 7475 7593

§ Dictyna artemisia Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6992

§ Dictyna piratica Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
7103 7693

Dictyna littoricolens Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
Jones (1948, as D. acuta Jones): "Soap Lake, beach of N. shore" (ca. 7494).

Dictyna reticulata Gertsch and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6192 6397 6688 7199 7593

§ Dictyna shoshonea Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958.
6072 6496 7107 7593

§ Dictyna sp. #1
This belongs to the D. uintana complex, whose very similar members differ chiefly in proportional width of the male palp (in order of increasing width: #1, D. peragrata, D. chitina, D. uintana). Female differences are subtle. Nonetheless, I believe all four to be distinct. MF in UWBM.
6016 6216 6240 6827 7026 7328 7332 7533 7730 7938 8029 8241 8699 8618 8918

§ Dictyna sp. #2
Resembles D. jonesae Roewer. M in UWBM.
8505

§ Dictyna sp. #3
Resembles D. phylax. M in UWBM.
5715 7730

§ Dictyna sp. #4
F in UWBM.
7703 8182 8694

§ Dictyna sp. #5
Close to D. major, but minute differences in male palp appear consistent. MF in UWBM.
6685 6892 6894 6992 7199 7593 7693

§ Dictyna sp. #6
Resembles D. uintana. F in UWBM.
8790

§ Dictyna sp. #7
Resembles D. manitoba. M in UWBM.
7332

Family TITANOECIDAE

The removal of this family from Amaurobiidae by Lehtinen (1967) appears valid to me, despite the objections raised by Leech (1972), because members lack the trichobothrial pattern characteristic of all Amaurobiidae and Agelenidae (q.v.).

Titanoeca nigrella (Chamberlin)
Amaurobius americanus of W. Ref.: Leech 1972.
6704 6709 6992 6900 7008 7103 7475 7575 7901 8694

Family AMAUROBIIDAE

Callobius canada (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Leech 1972. Leech's key to the genus Callobius is not always reliable, and determinations should be confirmed by genitalic details, especially the median apophysis in males and the shape and relative size of ectal, lateral, and posterior lobes in females. Relative eye size is sometimes useful also.
5712 5714 7008 7103 7107 7108 7110 7211 7303 7305 7307 7504 7507 7603 7607 7703 7807 7809 7903 8399 8497 8790 8999

Callobius deces (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Leech 1972.
6528 6826 6827 7028 7429 "Seattle"

Callobius enus (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Leech 1972.
7809

Callobius tamarus (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Leech 1972.
Chamberlin (1947): "Wawawai" (ca. 6673).

Callobius nevadensis (Simon)
Amaurobius nevadensis of W. Ref.: Leech 1972.
5712 5714 6804 6905 7103 7105 7107 8587 8597 8786

Callobius nomeus (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Leech 1972.
6122 6719 7828 7934 8511 8790 8997

Callobius rothi Leech
Ref.: Leech 1972.
Leech (1972): "Olympia" (7028). Leech considered this record doubtful since the other records of C. rothi are from central California. However, even greater range extensions have occurred. Data from this collector, Trevor Kincaid, are generally trustworthy.

Callobius pictus (Simon)
Amaurobius pictus of W. Ref.: Leech 1972.
6335 7031 7222 "Tacoma" (7224-7225) 7227 7235 7319 7323 7324 7423 7519 7522 7537 7616 7617 7620 7621 7622 7623 7714 7718 7723 7731 7822 7828 8122 8123 8147[MCZ] 8214 8215 8517 8522 8525 8921

Callobius severus (Simon)
Amaurobius severus of W. Ref.: Leech 1972.
6335 6336 6827 6922 7028 7029 7125 7320 7321 7323 7324 7331 7522 7622 7623 7722 7723 8517

§ Callobius sp. #1
Resembles C. nomeus. MF in UWBM.
6016 6122 7305 7703

§ Callobius sp. #2
Related to C. pictus. M in UWBM.
6028

§ Callobius sp. #3
Related to C. pictus and C. nevadensis. F in UWBM.
8530

Callioplus macarius Chamberlin
Ref.: Leech 1972.
6121 6122 7312 7710 7711

Callioplus wabritaskus Leech
Ref.: Leech 1972.
7110 8572

Callioplus spenceri Leech
Ref.: Leech 1972.
6221

§ Callioplus sp. #1
Resembles C. macarius. MF in UWBM.
6917 7018 7414

§ Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Leech 1972.
7623 7624

Zanomys kaiba Chamberlin
Ref.: Leech 1972.
Leech (1972): "Tieton River at 10 mi E. Rimrock" (6609); "17 mi N. Naches"; "5 mi S. Spokane."

Zanomys aquilonia Leech
Ref.: Leech 1972.
5714 5915

Ecribellate Entelegyne Families:

Family PHOLCIDAE

Pholcophora americana Banks
Ref.: Gertsch 1935 (M); Chamberlin and Ivie 1935 (F discussed under P. obscura ); Gertsch 1982 (MF; places P. obscura Chamberlin and Ivie as a synonym with no discussion; I would be surprised to find this correct).
5915 6122 6504 6704 6999 6900 6902 7099 7103 7107 7108 7475 7575 7696 7605 7783 8099 8694 "Palmer Mountain" (8895-8896)

Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin)
P. phalangioides of W. Ref.: Kaston 1948.
5726 6335 7423 7523 7622 7623 7822 8323 8517

Psilochorus hesperus Gertsch and Ivie
Psilochorus fluvius Exline, 1937 NEW SYNONYM
Ref.: Gertsch and Ivie 1936. P. fluvius was published as a nomen nudum by Exline (1937). The unpublished description (Exline 1936b) leaves no doubt of the synonymy.
6386 6597 6504 6688 6704 6709 6899 6804 6805 6806 6992 6999 6900 6901 6902 6905 6934[anomalous but genuine western Washington record] 7099 7002 7003 7008 7199 7103 7104 7299 7385 7303 7403 7592 7504 7696 7601 7602 7603 7998 8694

§ Psilochorus sp. #1
Resembles P. hesperus. M in UWBM.
6488 7199

Family MIMETIDAE

§ Ero canionis Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Kaston 1948.
7026 7323 7623 8790

Mimetus hesperus Chamberlin
M. hesperus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin 1923.
6397 6794[MCZ] 7103 7498 7504

Family TETRAGNATHIDAE

Many authors have limited this family to a group of "primitive" orbweavers closely related to Tetragnatha. Levi (1980), however, showed that far from being primitive as previously assumed, those genera are derived from more typical orbweavers. He proposed a three-subfamily classification of Metinae, Tetragnathinae, and Araneinae in the family Araneidae. Brignoli (1983), Merrett et al. (1985), and others have made opposite use of Levi's results by raising all three to family rank. Both classifications are invalidated by the results of Coddington (1986) and Levi (1986), showing that the Metinae and Tetragnathinae cannot be maintained in separate families, but that the two taken together form a group not closely related to the Araneidae. The genus Zygiella is placed here rather than in Araneidae following Levi (1980, 1986).

Subfamily METINAE

Metellina curtisi (McCook)
Cyrtophora californiensis of W. Ref.: Levi 1980.
6022 6028 6240 6335 6336 6337 6340 6528 6632 6740 6821 6822 6827 6928 6934 7026 7028 7032 7034 7041 7131 7235 7319 7330 7332 7420[MCZ] 7433 7517 7518 7519 7520 7521 7523 7524 7533 7616 7618 7620 7621 7624 7630 7643 7718 7723 7730 7821 7839 7936 7938 8029 8118 8119 8122 8123 8125 8146 8147 8213 8214 8241 8516 8517 8518 8520 8523 8525 8530 8624 8687 8730 8921

§ Metellina mimetoides Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Levi 1980. Although Levi presented Washington map dots, no verifiable records from the state have previously appeared.
6022 6709 6827 7028 7507 7518 7531 7533 7607 7809 8516

§ Metellina segmentata (Clerck) FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Levi 1980. This European species, first introduced to North America at Vancouver, British Columbia, first record 1966 (Levi 1980), was found at the northern edge of Washington in 1986.
8921

Zygiella dispar (Kulczynski)
Z. californica of W (in part). Ref.: Gertsch 1964; Levi 1974a.
8029 8146 8617 8730

Zygiella carpenteri Archer
Ref.: Gertsch 1964; Levi 1974a.
Gertsch (1964): "Fishtrap Lake, 35 miles SW of Spokane" (7378).

Zygiella x-notata (Clerck)
Z. californica of W (in part). Ref.: Gertsch 1964; Levi 1974a.
5626 5923 6335 6337 6340 7119 7323 7331 7522 7524 7526 7622 7623 7624 "Everett" (7921-7922) 8129 8323

§ Zygiella atrica (C. Koch)
Ref.: Gertsch 1964; Levi 1974a.
7323 7522 7622 7623 8122

Subfamily TETRAGNATHINAE

Tetragnatha extensa (Linné)
Ref.: Levi 1981.
6928 7026 7199 7502 "Seattle" 8146 8372 8572 8790

Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer
T. elongata of W. Ref.: Levi 1981.
6918 7222 7622

Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer
T. extensa of W. Ref.: Levi 1981.
5916 5918 5919 6072 6016 6017 6018 6022 6023 6122 6216 6221 6240 6386 6335 6336 6504 6513 6519 6522 6528 6678 6685[MCZ] 6632 6639 6794[MCZ] 6704 6709 6717 6723 6740 6894 6804 6805 6817 6821 6822 6826 6827 6828 6991 6992 6999 6902 6905 6907 6928 7099 7006 7009 7020 7026 7028 7031 7032 7103 7105 7107 7108 7110 7131 7299 7210 7212 7220 7234 7235 7305 7313 7319 7328 7330 7332 7475 7405 7414 7417 7421 7429 7433 7593 7507 7518 7519 7533 7693 7603 7604 7605 7616 7618 7622 7627 7703 7710 7712 7721 7723 7730 7809 7822 7833 7839 7931 7934 7936 7938 8122 8146 8147[MCZ] 8201 8241 8372 8399 8317 8497 8410 8572 8597 8511 8517 8518 8694 8617 8618 8790 8799 8872 8895 8818 8970 8997 8918

Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz
T. laboriosa of W. Ref.: Levi 1981.
5716 5915 5916 6072 6016 6028 6178 6122 6297 6216 6221 6240 6397 6335 6336 6488 6438 6504 6513 6522 6538 6688 6632 6639 6717 6719 6740 6892 6894 6804 6805 6817 6822 6827 6828 6829 6992 6902 6905 6907 6921 6928 6934 7099 7002 7006 7009 7026 7027 7028 7030 7199 7105 7131 7133 7212 7223 7234 7235 7385 7305 7311 7315 7319 7328 7332 7475 7414 7421 7423 7429 7433 7575 7592 7593 7518 7520 7522 7523 7533 7693 7696 7604 7605 7617 7618 7622 7623 7624 7629 7643 7789 7714 7721 7722 7723 7730 7809 7822 7828 7833 7839 7931 7934 7938 7946 8029 8035 8042 8122 8146 8147 8299 8201 8214 8241 8372 8399 8317 8497 8499 8572 8598 8506 8507 8511 8524 8687 8694 8699 8617 8618 8790 8895 8970 8973 8997 8918 8921

Tetragnatha pallescens F. O. Pickard-Cambridge
Ref.: Levi 1981.
7723 8241

Tetragnatha caudata Emerton
Ref.: Levi 1981.
6740 7328 7332 7475 7520 7622 7623 8146

Tetragnatha shoshone Levi
Ref.: Levi 1981.
7429

Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton
Ref.: Levi 1981.
Exline (1936b): "Toutle River." This record was repeated by Levi (1981), who examined the Exline collection but did not cite Exline's other two records, from "Chase Lake" (7723) and "Seattle"; it may be assumed that these were misidentifications.

§ Pachygnatha dorothea McCook
Ref.: Levi 1980.
7332 7518 7622 7623

Pachygnatha xanthostoma C. Koch
Ref.: Levi 1980.
Exline (1936b): "Seattle" "Tanwax Lake" (6922). These records may be incorrect, as Exline's Pachygnatha were identified by E. Bryant who, according to Levi (1980), confused P. xanthostoma with P. dorothea and P. brevis Keyserling. Levi's only Washington record of P. xanthostoma was an unverifiable map dot from the northeast corner of the state.

§ Pachygnatha clerckii Sundevall
Ref.: Levi 1980.
8790

Family ARANEIDAE

Argiope trifasciata (Forskål)
A. trifasciata of W. Ref.: Levi 1968.
6072 6292 6504 "Tieton" (6607-6707) 6892 6804 6992 6905 "Moses Lake" (7092-7193) "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7403 7592 7593 7502 7504 7520 7522 7693 7789 7800 7901 7922 7924

Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer)
N. arabesca of W. Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971.
6581[MCZ] 6504[MCZ] 6685[MCZ] 6905 7593 8122

Neoscona oaxacensis (Keyserling)
N. oaxacensis of W. Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971.
6597 6697 6804 6992 "Moses Lake" (7092-7193) "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7593 7693

Metepeira foxi Gertsch and Ivie
Metepeira lanei Exline, 1937 NEW SYNONYM
Ref.: Levi 1977b. M. lanei was published as a nomen nudum by Exline (1937). The synonymy is apparent from the unpublished description (Exline 1936b).
6386 6397 6488 6496 6497 6597 6688 6805 6992 6900 7099 7199 7299 7385 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7593 7696 8300 8597

Metepeira grandiosa grandiosa Chamberlin and Ivie
M. labyrinthea of W. Ref.: Levi 1977b.
Worley (1932): "Wawawai" (ca. 6673) "Yakima."
Exline (1936b): "Grand Coulee." All these records were under M. labyrinthea (Hentz). Levi (1977b) placed a map dot in the vicinity of Wawawai.

Hypsosinga variabilis (Emerton)
Linyphia banksi of W. Ref.: Levi 1972. Levi (1975b) has synonymized this species under Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall). Based on published illustrations, I doubt this synonymy and do not accept it here (SYNONYMY REJECTED).
8572

§ Hypsosinga funebris (Keyserling)
Ref.: Levi 1972 (as H. singaeformis Scheffer; synonymy by Levi 1975b).
7498

Cyclosa conica (Pallas)
C. conica of W. Ref.: Levi 1977a.
5916 6018 6022 6814[MCZ] 6907 7003 7028 7034 7103 7107 7108 7211 7220 7305 7475 7409 7417 7421 7507 7518 7533 7605 7623 7625 7723 7809 7931[MCZ] 7936 7938 8029 8372 8317 8497 8517 8970 8973

§ Cyclosa turbinata (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Levi 1977a. Levi's distribution map of this species shows two Washington dots, but these are the first verifiable Washington records.
7429 7622

Larinia borealis Banks
L. borealis of W. Ref.: Levi 1975a. There has been confusion concerning the type series of this species. Banks (1894a) cited six syntypes: four from Olympia (7028), Washington, and two from Franconia, New Hampshire. Grasshoff (1971) and Levi (1975a) referred only to the New Hampshire syntypes, Grasshoff saying there were two females; Levi, one female and two juveniles. But until a lectotype is formally designated, no restriction of the syntype series or type locality is valid [ICZN Articles 73 (b), 74 (a)]. Thus Olympia, not mentioned as a locality by Levi or Grasshoff, is still part of the composite type locality. Levi showed a map dot in eastern Washington.

Araneus diadematus Clerck
A. diadematus of W. Ref.: Levi 1971.
5626 5716 5726 5923 6022 6028 6221 6335 6632 6721 6928 7027 7028 7223 "Tacoma" (7224-7225) 7227 7235 7323 7331 7422 7423 7520 7522 7523 7524 7526 7530 7622 7623 7624 7714 7721 7722 7822 "Everett" (7921-7922) 8029 8118 8122 8129 8227 8517 8523 8821 8973 8921

Araneus saevus L. Koch
A. solitarius and A. angulatus of W. Ref.: Levi 1971.
"McNeil Island" (7126-7226) 7315 8973

Araneus nordmanni Thorell
A. nordmanni of W. Ref.: Levi 1971.
6018 6817 6918 7227 7311 7415 7714 7934 7936 8317 8618 8805 8918

Araneus marmoreus Clerck
A. marmoreus of W. Ref.: Levi 1971.
6335 6827 7028 7235 "Seattle" 7526 7839 8018 8617

Araneus trifolium Hentz
A. trifolium of W. Ref.: Levi 1971.
6918 7027 7212 7235 7313 7520 "Seattle" 7822 8018 8122 8790 8973

Araneus gemmoides Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Levi 1971. Levi's key and descriptions suggest that A. gemmoides differs from A. gemma in the female by its smaller epigynum; but I have found by image superposition that the epigyna of the two species are essentially the same size. That of A. gemmoides appears smaller because the abdomen is much larger. A. gemma's epigynum is less triangular and its border is less marked; compare Levi's figures 195 and 203.
5914 6083 6694 6605 6771 7028 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7403 7405 "Seattle" "Wilbur" (7786-7787) 7902 8410 8530

Araneus gemma McCook
A. gemmus of W. Ref.: Levi 1971. Levi's figures 203-204 match the epigyna of Washington material; figures 205-209 may represent another species.
6016 8973

Aculepeira packardii (Thorell)
Araneus aculeatus of W. Ref.: Levi 1977b.
I doubt very much that all the spiders treated under this name by Levi (1977b) are really conspecific. Possibly as many as three species occur in Washington, but I do not yet have enough material to separate them reliably.
6216 6496 6513 6717 6740 6814 6992 6900 6905 7009 7018 7299 7222 7319[MCZ] 7520 7696 7833 7934 8147[MCZ] 8506 8511 8818 8999 8918 8921

§ Aculepeira carbonarioides (Keyserling)
Ref.: Levi 1977b.
8999

Araniella displicata (Hentz)
Araneus cucurbitinus of W. Ref.: Levi 1974b.
5712 5915 6083 6016 6017 6018 6022 6122 6216 6221 6513 6673 6717 6740 6814[MCZ] 6815 6817 6827 6910[MCZ] 6921 6928 7009 7020 7026 7028 7032 7103 7105 7107 7108 7133 7207 7210 7211 7220 7315 7330 7332 7414 7417 7433 7506 7507 7520 7521 7530 7533 7603 7604 7622 7623 7721 7723 7730 7809 7818 7902 7903 7931 7934 7936 7946 8029 8122 8299 8214 8216 8317 8497 8578 8597 8507 8530 8699 8617 8618 8790 8970 8997 8918

Larinioides patagiatus (Clerck)
Araneus patagiatus of W. Ref.: Levi 1974b (as Nuctenea patagiata). This and the two following species have been placed provisionally in a number of araneid genera, but the transfer to Larinioides by Grasshoff (1983) should be comparatively stable.
6083 6018 6022 6335 6673 6639 6704 6804 6822 6992 6928 6934 7027 7028 7104 7131 7475 7405 7414 7417 7420 7576 7593 7518 7526 7693 7622 7623 7624 7629 "Newman Lake" (7770-7771) 7783 7721 7723 7822 8147 8372 8572 8973

§ Larinioides cornutus (Clerck)
Ref.: Levi 1974b (as Nuctenea cornuta). I would not be surprised if this name proved to conceal several sibling species. My material (all from the Washington coast) is certainly atypical.
7643 8147 8346

Larinioides sclopetarius (Clerck)
Araneus sericatus of W. Ref.: Levi 1974b (as Nuctenea sclopetaria).
7028 7323 7522 7622 7623 8323

Family MYSMENIDAE

See Platnick and Shadab (1978) and Coddington (1986) for information on this relatively new family, formerly treated as part of the Symphytognathidae.

§ Trogloneta sp. #1
Close to T. paradoxa Gertsch (1960a), but with small genitalic differences. Authors have treated this generic name as neuter, but it apparently should be feminine.
5715 7303 7603 7730 7839

Family THERIDIIDAE

Argyrodes fictilium (Hentz)
Ref.: Exline and Levi 1962.
"Seattle" 8214

Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck)
Ref.: Hippa and Oksala 1982.
5620 5714 5715 6072 6221 6540 6632 6704 6740 6806 6821 6822 6829 6905 6934 7009 7026 7027 7107 7131 7133 7223 7235 7305 7322 7323 7328 7475 7420[MCZ] 7421 7423 7519 7520 7523 7622 7623 7720 7721 7722 7723 7730 7816 7821 7822 8029 8042 8122 8139 8147 8241 8372 8578 8597 8524 8525 8617 8821

§ Enoplognatha latimana Hippa and Oksala
Ref.: Hippa and Oksala 1982.
6293[MCZ] 6221 6504[MCZ] 7475 7833 7934

§ Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn)
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6828 6829 6928 7131 7429 7622 7623

Enoplognatha marmorata (Hentz)
E. tecta and E. mimoides of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6717 7402 8699

Enoplognatha joshua Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Levi 1957a. As Gertsch (1960b) pointed out, Levi's treatment of E. joshua is a composite of several sibling species. The Washington records appear to represent true E. joshua.
6999 6900 6901 7603

§ Enoplognatha intrepida (Sørensen)
Ref.: Levi 1957a. My specimens (I have only females) belong to two distinct varieties which may well be species.
7604 7882 8790 8999

Crustulina sticta (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
C. borealis, C. pallipes, and C. guttata of W. Ref: Levi 1957b.
6028 6221 6528 6894 6814[MCZ] 6928 7303 7330 7332 7429 8999

§ Steatoda washona Gertsch
Ref.: Gertsch 1960b. Levi and Randolph (1975) did not accept Gertsch's species in the Steatoda fulva group, citing Levi (1959) in support. However, though Levi (1959) discussed Gertsch's ideas, his paper was not a refutation of Gertsch's subsequent one (1960b). Moreover, in my view Levi's (1959) data support Gertsch's (1960b) contention that there are four or five species, not one, in the Steatoda medialis series.
6293[MCZ]

Steatoda pulchra (Keyserling)
Lithyphantes pulcher of W. Ref.: Gertsch 1960b. Both Levi (1957b) and Gertsch (1960b) placed this species under the feminine name Steatoda, but neither corrected the gender of the specific name. Although Gertsch cited the distribution of this species as "California and Oregon," the type locality is "Washington Territory," clarified by Worley (1932) as "Camp Umatilla" (probably ca. 5993).
8694

§ Steatoda fulva (Keyserling)
Ref.: Gertsch 1960b.
6192 6704

Steatoda albomaculata (de Geer)
Lithyphantes corollatus of W. Ref: Levi 1957b.
6178[MCZ] 6122 6609 6814[MCZ] 7097 7103 7932

Steatoda americana (Emerton)
Asagena americana of W. Ref: Levi 1957b.
Worley 1932: "Olympia" (7028) "Cypress Island" (8526-8527) "Orcas Island" (8627-8630).

Steatoda grossa (C. Koch)
Ref: Levi 1957b.
5726 6335 6823 7223 7323 7422 7423 7522 7523 7524 7622 7623 7723 8323 8530

§ Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer)
Ref: Levi 1957b.
7402 7521

Steatoda hespera Chamberlin and Ivie
Steatoda borealis of W. Ref: Levi 1957b.
5916 7009 7107 7809 7936 8505 8698 8699 8790 8873 8973

Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin and Ivie
L. mactans of W. Ref.: Kaston 1970.
5714 6292 "Zillah" (6302-6402) 6471 6581 6582 6504 6673 6685 6694 6605 6804 6991 6992 6999 6900 7099 7002 7006 7199 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7299 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7404 7593 7696 "Brewster" (8097-8198) 8297 8227 8595 8596 8530 8694 8629

Robertus vigerens (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Kaston 1946 (as Ctenium vigerens).
6121 6122 6216 6240 6524 6717 6822 6915 6921 7110 7220 7223 7414 7517 7518 7603 7624 7708 7710 7723 7833 7839 7938 8034 8213 8214 8372 8518 8523 8918 8920 8921

§ Robertus sp. #1
A distinctive species; F in UWBM.
8997

Dipoena "nigra" (Emerton)
D. tibialis of W. Ref.: Levi 1953. Levi's description of D. nigra clearly lumps several good species. It is possible that neither of my two species in this group is true D. nigra, judging from Emerton's (1882) original description. One is probably D. tibialis Banks. Species A corresponds to Levi's figures 44-45.
Species A: 6992 7433 7604 7809 8572 8597 8505
Species B: 7009 7105 8572

Dipoena washougalia Levi
Ref.: Levi 1953 (M only).
6632

§ Dipoena lana Levi
Ref.: Levi 1953 (F only).
7623

§ Dipoena sp. #1
A distinctive species; F in UWBM.
7107

§ Dipoena sp. #2
Like D. washougalia but palp distinct. M in UWBM.
7630

Euryopis formosa Banks
E. formosa of W. Ref.: Levi 1954.
5712 6122 6910[MCZ] 7103 7108 7305 7475 7807 7809

§ Achaearanea acoreensis (Berland)
Ref.: Levi 1967.
6632 7623 7624

§ Achaearanea "canionis" (Chamberlin and Gertsch)
Ref.: Levi 1955. Levi's description includes at least three species (Gertsch 1960b); the original description by Chamberlin and Gertsch (1929) is of no help in deciding which is the true A. canionis. My specimens correspond to Levi's fig. 61.
7475 8378

Achaearanea tepidariorum (C. Koch)
Theridion tepidariorum of W. Ref.: Levi 1955; Kaston 1948.
5626 5726 5923 6022 6335 6337 7027 7028 7034 7222 7322 7323 7331 7332 7403 7420 7423 7622 7623 7723 7822 "Everett" (7921-7922) 8122 8323 8517 8821

§ Chrysso pelyx (Levi)
Ref.: Levi 1958 (as Arctachaea pelyx).
7601[MCZ]

Thymoites pictipes (Banks)
Ref.: Levi 1957a (as Paidisca pictipes).
Levi 1957a: "Seattle."

Thymoites camano (Levi)
Ref.: Levi 1957a (as Paidisca camano).
5714 6022 6023 7303 7519 7623 7730 8921

Theridion murarium Emerton
T. murarium of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
8973

Theridion petraeum L. Koch
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6992 6905 7603 7901

Theridion differens Emerton
T. differens of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6022 7131 7211 7328 7475 7429 8372 8572

Theridion michelbacheri Levi
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6828

§ Theridion berkeleyi Emerton
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
7575 7809

Theridion varians Hahn
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6632 6822 7131 7222 7223 7520 7523 7622 7623 7720 7822 8122 8317 8821 8921

Theridion simile C. Koch
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6028 6827 6828 6829 6921 7028 7131 7133 7222 7328 7332 7429 7518 7622 7623 7721 8125

Theridion melanurum Hahn
T. dorsatum of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
5923 7323 7423 7524 7623 7721 7723

Theridion tinctum (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
5923 6028 6335 6632 6829 7026 7027 7131 7222 7319[MCZ] 7323 7420[MCZ] 7422 7520 7521 7522 7523 7524 7621 7623 7722 7723 7822 8517 8921

Theridion saanichum Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Levi 1957a. Females of this species are not easy to identify using Levi's description; his fig. 250 is apparently a posterior rather than a ventral view.
6335 7931 8029 8122 8146

Theridion lawrencei Gertsch and Archer
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
5916 6016 6221 6817 7604 7730 7731

Theridion montanum Emerton
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
7730 8317 8970

Theridion leechi Gertsch and Archer
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
7107 7108 7211 7475 7603 7605 7809

Theridion punctipes Emerton
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
Levi 1957a: "Chevalis," i.e., Chehalis (6629).
Theridion neomexicanum Banks

T. placens of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6072 6221 6910[MCZ] 7009 7105 7108[MCZ] 7210 7305 7403 7507 7603 7703 7721 7903 8299 8399 8300 8497 8498 8597 8521 8698 8790

Theridion bimaculatum (Linné)
Ref.: Levi 1956 (as Neottiura bimaculata).
6121 6122 6216 6221 6504 6827 6828 6829 6928 6934 7027 7028 7108[MCZ] 7131 7133 7211 7315 7328 7332 7420[MCZ] 7421 7429 7622 7623 7721 7822 7931[MCZ] 7932 8029 8122 8125 8139 8147 8372 8317 8572

Theridion frondeum Hentz
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
Levi 1957a: "Spokane County."

Theridion agrifoliae Levi
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6740 8029 8122 8125 8139[MCZ] 8147[MCZ] 8241

Theridion californicum Banks
T. californicum of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6022 6240 6632 7026 7131 7328 7330 7533 7720 7721 7723 8029 8122 8125 8147 8214

Theridion sexpunctatum Emerton
T. sexpunctatum of W. Ref.: Levi 1957a.
5620 6072 6023 6028 6122 6221 6240 6335 6336 6522 6528 6740 6821 6822 6827 6828 6829 6921 6928 6934 7026 7027 7028 7031 7032 7041 7108 7110 7131 7133 7220 7227 7234 7235 7319 7322 7323 7328 7332 7414 7418 7423 7429 7433 7517 7518 7519 7520 7521 7522 7523 7524 7533 7537 7605 7607 7616 7617 7620 7621 7622 7623 7624 7630 7710 7712 7714 7718 7720 7722 7723 7728 7730 7731 7809 7822 7839 7931 7938 7946 8029 8122 8123 8125 8139 8146 8147 8213 8214 8241 8372 8346 8506 8518 8523 8617 8618 8970 8921

§ Theridion ohlertii Thorell
Ref.: Levi 1957a.
6122 7205 7211 7710 7903 7934 8970

Family NESTICIDAE

Nesticus silvestrii Fage
Ref.: Gertsch 1984. My females differ from Gertsch's illustrations in the more central position and inward curvature of the accessory spermathecal lobes.
6022 6122 6340 6740 7041 7332 7519 7521 7522 7523 7621 8035 8119 8372 8518 8522 8523 8921

Family LINYPHIIDAE

There has been little agreement on the limits of this family. The species with simpler genitalia and/or fewer leg spines have usually been grouped together in either a subfamily or a separate family, called Erigonidae (Erigoninae) or Micryphantidae (Micryphantinae). The latter name is now known to be invalid. Recent studies of the respiratory system (Millidge 1984a, 1986) show that Erigoninae is a valid grouping but that the defining character, a unique development of the tracheae, is discordant with characters formerly used to define the group as a family. Millidge's classification of the Linyphiidae is the best to date and is followed here, with the exception that his "Stemonyphantes group" is included under Linyphiinae for convenience.

Subfamily ERIGONINAE

To clarify somewhat the relationships of this complex group, I have arranged the numerous erigonine genera according to the palpal-conformation groups of Millidge (1977). Genera not treated by Millidge are placed only tentatively.

Group 5 (Millidge 1977)

Erigone aletris Crosby and Bishop
Erigone labra Crosby and Bishop, 1928; E. metlakatla Crosby and Bishop, 1928 NEW SYNONYMS
Ref.: Snazell 1980. Snazell showed that E. olympias Crosby and Bishop is synonymous with E. aletris. Crosby and Bishop based several of their Erigone species on the proportions of the male palp tibia and patella and the shape of the male palp femur. My numerous material of E. aletris shows that these characters are polymorphic; the proportions vary greatly according to the size of the specimen. The diagnostic characters in male Erigone are the embolic division and shape of the end of the palp tibia (Holm 1956). These remain constant throughout the present species. Crosby and Bishop's (1928) illustrations show that the embolic divisions of E. labra, E. metlakatla, and E. olympias are essentially identical (their figures 55, 58, and 61). I have specimens corresponding to all three "species" and others intermediate between them.
6028 6122 6221 "Yakima" (6504-6605) 6528 6636 6639 6817 6928 7030 7220 7223 7227 7315 7319 7403 7417 7518 7533 7622 7623 7721 7723 7730 7818 7833 7931[MCZ] 8029 8147 8241 8425 8572 8624 8921

§ Erigone arctophylacis Crosby and Bishop FIRST U.S. RECORD. Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M); Holm 1973 (F). My males from the Olympic Mountains correspond closely to Crosby and Bishop's type from Arctic Canada, but Olympic females show differences from the Siberian female illustrated by Holm. Holm's drawing is more like, and may be, E. arcticola Chamberlin and Ivie.
7833

Erigone coloradensis Keyserling
E. coloradensis of W. Ref.: Keyserling 1886.
The identity of this species is uncertain. Crosby and Bishop (1928) treated it as a nomen dubium and to my knowledge it has not been reinvestigated. The types, presumably in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), should be examined. The record by Worley (1932) from "Olympia" (7028) is possibly a misidentification.

§ Erigone dentigera O. Pickard-Cambridge
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928.
6221 7027 7131 7220 7315 7414 7622 7623 7624 7721 7722 7723 7931[MCZ] 7833 7934 8029

Erigone dentosa O. Pickard-Cambridge
E. californica of W. Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928.
5916 6072 6121 6122 6297 6221 6397 6678 6685 6688 6717 6719 6873 6894 6817 6917 7009 7028 7103 7105 7107 7110 7385 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7305 7315 7475 7403 7593 7519 7520 7693 7605 7833 "Diamond Lake" (8171-8172) 8201 8372 8497 8597 8970

Erigone ostiaria Crosby and Bishop
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928.
Crosby and Bishop 1928: "Edmonds" (ca. 4823), type locality.
Erigone paradisicola Crosby and Bishop
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M); Crawford and Edwards in press (MF). MF in UWBM.
6513 6717 6817 7009 7414 7833 7934 8511 8699 8617 8618 8997

§ Erigone zographica Crosby and Bishop
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M only). MF in UWBM. Eastern and western Washington populations differ slightly but are probably conspecific. Erigone viabilis Chamberlin and Ivie (1933) is probably a synonym.
7029 7622 7623 7624 7722 7822 "Camano Island" (8124-8225) 8970

§ Erigone sp. #1
Resembles E. capra Simon. F in UWBM.
7429

§ Erigone sp. #2
Resembles E. atra (Blackwall). F in UWBM.
6221

§ Erigone sp. #3
Close to E. zographica. M in UWBM.
7026

§ Eperigone lindrothi Holm
Ref.: Holm 1960.
8029

§ Eperigone trilobata (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928; Millidge 1987. Millidge's Washington records are not verifiable.
6122 6221 6240 6740 6992 6928 7029 7417 7422 7622 7623 7624 8921

§ Eperigone sp. #2
Related to E. socius Chamberlin. F in UWBM.
6639

§ Eperigone sp. #3
Apparently distinct; F in UWBM.
6221

Montilaira perplexa (Keyserling)
Catabrithorax perplexus of W. Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M); Keyserling 1886 (F). Montilaira was synonymized under Catabrithorax by Crosby and Bishop (1928), but Chamberlin and Ivie (1933) rejected the synonymy for sufficient reason, a fact overlooked by most recent authors. When Hackman (1954) made Catabrithorax a synonym of Collinsia, the exclusion of Montilaira was implied; I agree, at least pending revision of the group.
Keyserling 1886: "Washington Territory" (type locality). Crosby and Bishop 1928, Worley 1932: "Olympia" (7028).

Montilaira ksenia (Crosby and Bishop)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M, as Catabrithorax ksenius); Levi and Levi 1955 (F, under Collinsia). This species is named after Crosby and Bishop's illustrator, Ksenia Polevitzky; however, it was latinized [ICZN Art. 11b(vi)] as ksenius, and thus must still agree in gender with its generic name (ICZN Art. 31b).
6221 6505 6717 6721 6817 6902 7103 7110 7403 7416 7417 7622 7624 7934 8698 8699 8790 8970 8921

§ Montilaira sp. #2
F in UWBM; resembles Emerton's (1882) figure of the female M. pertinens (O. Pickard-Cambridge), described from Maine, but might belong to a new species.
6524

§ Collinsia clypiella (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1928 (M, under Catabrithorax); Levi and Levi 1955 (F). Millidge (1977) suggested, based on European species, that Collinsia might be a synonym of Halorates. This synonymy was adopted by Merrett et al. (1985); however, I hesitate to apply it to North American species until the latter have been revised.
Based on the distributions of this species and its sibling C. stylifer (Chamberlin), Washington specimens should belong to the latter (Chamberlin 1949); but I have no males whose palps correspond exactly to Chamberlin's figures of C. stylifer, though some are intermediate between C. stylifer and C. clypiella. Probably these two are only subspecies; pending further study, I assign all Washington specimens to C. clypiella, the older name. Gongylidium alascensis Banks (1900) will possibly prove to be a senior synonym of one or both.
6121 6122 6221 6335 6639 7027 7030 7131 7315 7332 7416 7417 7518 7533 7620 7622 7623 7624 7708 7723 8029 8317 8518 8724 8872 8970 8997

§ Collinsia sp. #1
Related to C. borea (L. Koch); both species may prove to belong in Montilaira. M in UWBM.
7416

§ Islandiana princeps Brändegaard
Ref.: Ivie 1965.
6873

Group 1 (Millidge 1977)

Tunagyna, which probably does not belong in Group 1, is listed here because Millidge (1984b) revised it in the same paper as Tachygyna.

Tachygyna ursina (Bishop and Crosby)
Ref.: Millidge 1984b. Millidge revalidated the genus Tachygyna, considered a synonym of Phanetta by Brignoli (1979, 1983).
6216 6740 7009 7414 7523 7622 8970 8997

§ Tachygyna haydeni Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Millidge 1984b.
8699

§ Tachygyna vancouverana Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Millidge 1984b. This and the following three species have here their first verifiable Washington records, though Millidge presented Washington map dots.
6022 6221 6715 6740 6928 7110 7518

§ Tachygyna proba Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1984b.
7312 8618

§ Tachygyna coosi Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1984b (F only).
8147

§ Tachygyna exilis Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1984b (F only). MF in UWBM.
6122

§ Tachygyna sp. #1
Resembles T. pallida Chamberlin and Ivie. F in UWBM.
6704 6806

§ Tachygyna sp. #2
Unique M (UWBM) which might belong to T. coosi or T. sp. #1.
6403

§ Tachygyna sp. #3
An unusual F (UWBM) which could belong to either this genus or to Subbekasha Millidge (1984b).
7624

§ Tunagyna debilis (Banks)
Ref.: Millidge 1984b.
8997

§ Wabasso cacuminatus Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1984b (includes a map symbol from New Hampshire but no verifiable U.S. records).
8997

§ Diplocentria sp. #1
Related to D. bidentata (Emerton). F in UWBM.
7603

§ "Eulaira" arctoa Holm
Ref.: Holm 1960. Millidge (1984a) found that the type species of Eulaira is not erigonine; however, I believe that this and some other species described in Eulaira are true erigonines of uncertain generic placement.
6122 7332 7518 7520 7708

Group 4 (Millidge 1977)

§ Oedothorax sp. #1
In general resembles typical congeners, but has an unusual chaetotaxy (tibial spines 2222). MF in UWBM.
6740 7223 7518 7622 7624 7723

Group 14 (Millidge 1977)

§ Eboria sp. #1 GENUS REVALIDATED
F in UWBM, does not match any species in Holm's (1963) revision of the genus.
The correct name for the genus Eboria Falconer, 1910, has been needlessly obscured; the placing of this name in synonymy under Semljicola Strand, 1906, by Brignoli (1983: 321) was incorrect. The error originated when Holm (1973) redescribed the holotype of Erigone barbigera L. Koch, type species of Semljicola Strand, and transferred the species to Eboria. This placement was necessarily tentative because the specimen lacked genitalia. Holm very properly (ICZN Art. 23b) maintained usage of the junior, but well-established, name Eboria. However, Brignoli (1983) rejected the argument of usage and substituted the older name Semljicola; he has been followed by Merrett et al. (1985) and others. The situation is clarified by my discovery that the well-described Typhochrestus jeniseicus Eskov (1981) is a synonym of E. barbigera (NEW SYNONYM); Eskov's and Holm's descriptions match very closely on every character. The intact genitalia of Eskov's material emphatically exclude that species from both Eboria and Typhochrestus (it, and thus the genus Semljicola, now monotypic, belong to palpal Group 5 of Millidge 1977). The generic synonymy of Eboria with Semljicola, now invalidated, should never have been made on such dubious grounds.
8997

§ Sciastes extremus Holm
Ref.: Holm 1967, Millidge 1984b. FIRST AMERICAN RECORD; formerly known from Greenland.
8997

§ Sciastes sp. #1
Resembles S. ensifer Millidge (1984b). F in UWBM.
8699 8997

Group 8 (Millidge 1977)

§ Tapinocyba sp. #1
This will probably prove to be the species figured as "Ceratinella sp." by Banks (1900, fig. 5). Specimens do have the general appearance of Ceratinella. Crosby (1905) proposed the name Ceraticelus innominabilis for Banks's figure. This constitutes a valid indication [ICZN Art. 12 (b) (7)], but status of the name will have to be checked by examination of the type [the specimen Banks illustrated; see ICZN Art. 72 (c) (v)]. MF in UWBM.
7730 7934

§ Tapinocyba sp. #2
Close to T. dietrichi Crosby and Bishop (1933). MF in UWBM.
6121 6122 6221 6513 6740 7414 7524 7624 7710 7934 8147 8512 8523 8724 "Mt. Baker" 8997

§ Phlattothrata parva (Kulczynski) NEW COMBINATION
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1947 (as Tapinocyba matanuskae). Holm (1950) made the Alaskan T. matanuskae a synonym of the Siberian Typhochrestus parvus Kulczynski. Thaler (1980) pointed out that this species does not belong in Typhochrestus. Chamberlin and Ivie (1947) considered Phlattothrata Crosby and Bishop, 1933, with its type species P. flagellata (Emerton) and the new matanuskae, a subgenus of Tapinocyba. These species do not belong in Tapinocyba as now restricted (Millidge 1977), so Phlattothrata (GENUS REVALIDATED) must be used.
8372

Ceratinops crenatus (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1933.
Crosby and Bishop 1933: "Friday Harbor" (8530).

Ceratinops inflatus (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1933.
5915 6022 6023 6122 6221 6418 6438 6715 6721 6740 6922 6928 7041 7110 7223 7235 7312 7319 7332 7414 7517 7518 7519 7521 7523 7524 7616 7620 7621 7712 7718 7720 8015 8212 8522 8523 8525 8617 8618

§ Thyreosthenius parasiticus (Westring)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953. Described from North America as Hormathion limnatum Crosby and Bishop (1933), synonymy by Hackman (1954).
6970

§ Acartauchenius sp. #1
Related to A. pilifrons (L. Koch). MF in UWBM.
6122

Zygottus corvallis Chamberlin
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949. All my Washington females of Zygottus have a much wider epigynal notch than Chamberlin's illustration of Z. corvallis. Males are very close. Most probably, Chamberlin's female illustration is incorrectly drawn, or represents another species from Oregon. The type locality, "Denny Cr., Snoqualmie Pass" (7414) is in Washington.
5620 6023 6122 6632 6740 6928 6930 7110 7220 7328 7332 7416 7433 7518 7711 7712 7934 8035 8123 8214 8517 8522 8525

Group 11 (Millidge 1977)

§ Savignia sp. #1
M in UWBM. See Locket and Millidge (1953) and Millidge (1977) for characteristics of this genus. The name has been spelled Savignya by Bonnet (1958), Merrett et al. (1985), and others; but Savignia is the correct original spelling (ICZN Art. 32) and must be used.
7518

§ Savignia sp. #2
M in UWBM.
7416

§ Scylaceus selma (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949 (F, under Cornicularia). F in UWBM. Ivie (1967) transferred this species to Scylaceus. I am not certain that it is really congeneric with S. pallidus (Emerton), the type species, but in any case it is not a Cornicularia (=Walckenaeria). Millidge (1983) could not trace the type specimens.
7006

Group 9 (Millidge 1977)

Males of this and succeeding groups have a long, tubular, often twisted or spiral embolus. The first two species below belong to a NEW GENUS which has the somatic characters of Lessertia (see Locket and Millidge 1953) but very different genitalia.

"Spirembolus vasingtonus" Chamberlin (nomen nudum)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949, p. 505, fig. 82 (F). MF in UWBM. The missing description of this species was one of several inexplicable omissions from this Chamberlin paper. Pending formal description it has been necessary to use this unavailable name, both here and by Millidge (1980) and West et al. (1984).
6023 6335 6921 6928 7323 7332 7417 7423 7518 7523 7524 7537 7621 7622 7623 7624 8118 8147 8525

§ "Collinsia" wilburi Levi and Levi
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1955 (M). MF in UWBM.
6121 6122 6513 6719 7934 8511 8617 8618

Pelecopsis sculpta (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1931. This and related species have occasionally been placed in Trichopterna because of their fourth metatarsal trichobothrium. But as these genera were relimited by Millidge (1977), the species involved belong in Pelecopsis. This genus name has often been treated as neuter or masculine, but by ICZN Art. 30a, all names ending in -opsis are feminine. Pelecopsis sculpta digna Chamberlin and Ivie (1939), NEW STATUS, is not specifically distinct from P. sculpta as shown by examination of Oregon material (UWBM) intermediate between them.
7227 7235 8201 8214 8517 8525

§ Pelecopsis sp. #2
Close to, and possibly a form of, P. sculpta. F in UWBM.
7839

§ Hypselistes nr. florens (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953; Crosby and Bishop 1933; better illustrations in Emerton 1882. Washington and New England specimens differ somewhat, but more material is needed before their status can be decided.
7629 7828

§ Scironis tarsalis (Emerton)
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby 1938 (M); their fig. 37 may represent another species. MF in UWBM.
7723

§ Scironis sima Chamberlin
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949 (M). MF in UWBM. Probably not a true Scironis.
5915 6023 6122 6335 6930 7312 7332 7417 7624 7718

§ Symmigma minimum (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1933 (M). MF in UWBM.
6023 7312 7332 7517 7711 8034 8213 8617 8918

Hypomma marxii (Keyserling)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1933.
Banks 1896b: "Olympia" (7028), as Dicyphus bilobatus; synonymy by Crosby and Bishop (1933).

Sisis rotundus (Emerton)
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby 1938. Differs from Sisis plesius (Chamberlin), NEW COMBINATION, by shorter tibial apophysis and absence of a cephalic pit. Chamberlin (1949) tentatively ascribed the latter species to Minyriolus. Chamberlin's figures 88-92, representing plesius, were mislabelled Minyriolus plenus. The female described by Chamberlin does not belong with the male and is apparently a Pocadicnemis.
8997 8921

§ Mythoplastoides erectus (Emerton)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1933. Hackman (1954), misled by Chamberlin and Ivie's (1947) description of an Entelecara species under Mythoplastoides, synonymized the two genera. The palpal conformation (Millidge 1977) of Entelecara shows this to be incorrect, and this is confirmed by A. F. Millidge (in litt.). GENUS REVALIDATED.
6122 6717 6915 7710 7730 7934 8512 8618 8970

§ Dismodicus sp. #1
MF in UWBM. The synonymy of this genus has been chaotic. Hackman (1954), on having "much trouble" identifying Dismodicus species, synonymized D. decemoculatus (Emerton), D. modicus Chamberlin and Ivie, and D. variegatus Jackson under the "polytypic" D. bifrons (Blackwall). But comparison of D. decemoculatus as described by Crosby and Bishop (1933) with D. bifrons as described by Wiehle (1960) shows the palps to be quite dissimilar. Synonymy of D. modicus under D. bifrons is also hard to justify since it (with my two numbered species) is closer to D. elevatus (C. Koch) and was placed in synonymy there by Tullgren (1955) and Wiehle (1960). Holm (1967) treated D. decemoculatus as a subspecies of D. bifrons, but his description and records show that he in fact had D. variegatus. It is evident from recent work by Millidge (1980, 1981a, 1983) that erigonine genera contain many sibling species. Having found minute but consistent differences between my two Washington species, I feel that all the above names represent valid species (SYNONYMY REJECTED).
7328 7332 8029

§ Dismodicus sp. #2
Differs from #1 in several details. MF in UWBM.
8572

§ Sisicottus montanus (Emerton)
Ref.: Emerton 1882 (MF, as Tmeticus montanus); Chamberlin and Ivie 1939 (M); Crawford and Edwards in press (F). Bishop and Crosby (1938) confused three or more species under this name. Their record from "Seattle" and several of their figures undoubtedly refer to S. nesides. As noted by Chamberlin and Ivie (1939), S. orites (Chamberlin), S. nesides (Chamberlin), and S. montanus are distinct species. Holm (1960) treated S. nesides as a subspecies of S. montanus, based probably on the similarity of males. But females are very different and the two are often sympatric (Crawford and Edwards in press).
6513 6717 7018 7414 7833 7934 8317 8511 8699 8618 8970 8997

Sisicottus nesides (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1939 (M); Crawford and Edwards in press (F); Bishop and Crosby 1938, figs. 4, 5, 7, 8 (MF).
6016 6022 6121 6221 6513 6717 6719 6740 6915 7041 7220 7305 7414 7416 7518 7536 7620 7624 7710 7718 7723 7730 7839 7934 8015 8118 8147[MCZ] 8213 8241 8511 8512 8518 8522 8617 8618 8970

§ Sisicottus orites (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1919 (MF, as Grammonota orites); Chamberlin and Ivie 1939 (M); Crawford and Edwards in press (F). Chamberlin and Ivie (1933) correctly synonymized Oedothorax pidacitis Crosby and Bishop (1927) under S. orites; however, the female Chamberlin and Ivie illustrated under that name is not S. orites, but probably my S. species #1. Sisicottus montanus pidacitis in the sense of Bishop and Crosby (1938) is mostly S. nesides.
7416

§ Sisicottus sp. #1
Resembles S. orites. MF in UWBM.
8970

§ Floricomus sp. #1
Near F. rostratus (Emerton) (MF in Bishop and Crosby 1935) and F. littoralis Chamberlin and Ivie (1935). MF in UWBM.
6504

§ Ceraticelus atriceps (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1925 (M); Levi and Levi 1955 (F).
8572 8790 8970

§ Ceraticelus nr. rowensis Levi and Levi
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1955 (MF); Dondale 1958 (M).
6817 7030

Ceraticelus vesperus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1939.
6335 6528 6828 7433 8122 8372 8921

§ Ceraticelus sp. #1
MF in UWBM. This and the following species are closely related to C. atriceps, differing particularly in minor palpal details but also in the vulva, scutum, and carapace.
7131 7330

§ Ceraticelus sp. #2
M in UWBM.
7936

§ Ceraticelus sp. #3
F in UWBM.
6216

§ Ceraticelus sp. #4
F in UWBM.
6016

§ Ceraticelus sp. #5
F in UWBM.
6221 8618

§ Ceraticelus sp. #6
MF in UWBM.
7332 7533 8147[MCZ]

§ Ceratinella brunnea Emerton
Ref.: Crosby and Bishop 1925 (M); Chamberlin 1949 (M, as C. placida; synonymy by Ivie 1967). M, possible F in UWBM.
6504 8147

§ Ceratinella nr. tigana Chamberlin
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949 (F).
8147

§ Ceratinella sp. #1
Resembles C. alaskae Chamberlin and Ivie (1947). MF in UWBM.
6740 8212 8525 8617 8624

§ Ceratinopsis sp. #1
A distinctive species. M in UWBM.
6688

§ Grammonota nr. angusta Dondale
Ref.: Dondale 1959 (probably a different species).
7620

§ Grammonota gigas (Banks)
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby 1933.
8372

Grammonota kincaidi (Banks)
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby 1933 (M); Dondale 1959 (F).
6829 7332

§ Grammonota nr. vittata Barrows
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby 1933.
7475

Grammonota zephyra Dondale
Ref.: Dondale 1959 (F only).
Dondale 1959: "Arlington...122° 8' W., 40° 10' N.". Assuming the clearly erroneous 40° 10' refers to 48° 10', this locality would be south of Arlington in 8121.

§ Grammonota sp. #1
Resembles G. kincaidi; possibly the M of G. zephyra.
7619 8425

§ Grammonota sp. #2
Resembles G. kincaidi. M in UWBM.
6221

§ "Micrargus" aleuticus Holm
Ref.: Holm 1960. This species, with its congener "Metopobactrus" pacificus Emerton (1923) from British Columbia, almost certainly belongs in another genus.
6121 8425

Micrargus sp. #1
Resembles M. longitarsus (Emerton), redescribed under Baryphyma longitarsum by Crosby and Bishop (1933, M) and Levi (1951, F); new combination by Millidge (1977).
6740 7518 7723

Scotinotylus eutypus (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a.
6717 7833 7934

§ Scotinotylus sacer (Crosby)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a.
7833

§ Scotinotylus alpinus (Banks)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a.
8699

§ Scotinotylus patellatus (Emerton)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a. Millidge gave Washington map dots, but the first verifiable state records are those below.
6122 6335 6336 6513 7414 7433 7518 7521 7718 7730 7934 8511 8525 8624 8790 8921

§ Scotinotylus ambiguus Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1981a.
Millidge 1981a: "Cedar Lake" (8975), type locality.

§ Scotinotylus sanctus (Crosby)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a.
7008 7504 7783 8595

Scotinotylus bicavatus Millidge
Scotinotylus bipoculatus Millidge 1981a NEW SYN.
Ref.: Millidge 1981a (F); Crawford and Edwards in press (MF). The latter will present evidence for the new synonymy.
6121 6122 6717 6817 7018 7205 7934

Scotinotylus formicarius (Dondale and Redner)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a. The list of 22 Washington localities (repeated below) given for this myrmecophilous spider by Dondale and Redner (1972) graphically demonstrates how seldom this form of locality citation permits 0.1° accuracy:
"8 miles south of Woodland" (5727) "Asotin" (6370) "Naselle" (6337-6338) "Yakima" "Randle" (6519) "3 miles north of Morton" (6522-6622) "Pullman" (6771) "20 miles north of Elbe" (probably an error) "14 miles north of Hoquiam" (7138) "Seattle" "Spokane" (ca. 7673-7674) "Waterville" (7600) "13 miles south of Newport" (7970-8070) "5 miles north of Deer Park" (ca. 8074) "Keller" (8086) "5 miles east of Sequim" (8029-8030) "10 miles west of Port Angeles" (8136) "Oak Harbor" (8226-8326) "5 miles west of Omak" (8395-8496) "Winthrop" (8401) "10 miles east of Colville" (8576-8577) "Bellingham" (ca. 8724).

§ Scotinotylus sagittatus Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1981a (F only).
8699

§ Scotinotylus sp. #1
Related to S. sanctus. F in UWBM.
6771 6999

§ Scotinotylus sp. #2
This species will be described by Crawford and Edwards (in press). Near S. autor (Chamberlin 1949), NEW COMBINATION (sub Scironis; suggested by Millidge 1981a). MF in UWBM.
6717

§ Scotinotylus sp. #3
Related to S. sanctus. F in UWBM.
8974

§ Scotinotylus sp. #4
Resembles S. patellatus. F in UWBM.
6221 8624

§ Scotinotylus sp. #5
Near Scotinotylus columbia (Chamberlin 1949), NEW COMBINATION (sub Lophomma). MF in UWBM.
6221

Coreorgonal monoceros (Simon)
Ref.: Millidge 1981a (under Scotinotylus). See Crawford and Edwards (in press) for comments on the removal of Coreorgonal from synonymy; GENUS REVALIDATED.
6028 6121 6122 6221 6335 6528 6632 6717 6721 6817 6821 6822 6928 7009 7018 7032 7227 7235 7312 7323 7416 7417 7518 7519 7522 7523 7524 7617 7620 7621 7624 7730 7821 7931 7934 8517 8518 8520 8698 8921

Coreorgonal petulcus (Millidge) NEW COMBINATION
Ref.: Millidge 1981a (M, sub Scotinotylus); Crawford and Edwards in press (F). MF in UWBM.
6122 6513 7414 7710 7730 7934 8512 8525 8699 8618

§ Coreorgonal sp. #1
Near, and perhaps a form of, C. monoceros. F in UWBM.
6922

§ Spirembolus monticolens (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Millidge 1980.
6704 6806 7006 7107 7110 7211 7303 7708

Spirembolus prominens Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1980.
Millidge 1980: "Cedar Lake" (8975), type locality.

Spirembolus spirotubus (Banks)
Tiso spirotubus of W. Ref.: Millidge 1980. Banks (1895b), in describing this species from Colorado, mentioned "an allied species from Washington." Crosby (in Chamberlin 1925) examined this specimen (from Olympia, 7028, in MCZ) and referred it to S. synopticus Crosby. Millidge (1980) examined MCZ material, and his map dots imply that he has referred this record back to S. spirotubus.
6397

§ Spirembolus whitneyanus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Millidge 1980. My Washington female shows small, probably geographic differences from the Californian specimens described by Millidge.
8699

§ Spirembolus chilkatensis (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Millidge 1980 (F only); Chamberlin and Ivie 1947.
7624 7816

§ Spirembolus mundus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Millidge 1980.
5712 6028 7530

§ Spirembolus latebricola Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1980.
8241

§ Spirembolus abnormis Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1980 (with unverifiable U.S. map dots).
6335 6740 7131 7234 7323 7521 7523 7624 7723 7946

§ Spirembolus demonologicus (Crosby)
Ref.: Millidge 1980.
7624

§ Spirembolus sp. #1
#1 and #2 are near S. maderus Chamberlin. F in UWBM.
6704 7107 7110 7303

§ Spirembolus sp. #2
F in UWBM.
8201

Disembolus procerus Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1981b.
Millidge 1981b: "Tieton River, 10 miles east of Rimrock" (6609), type locality.

§ Disembolus sp. #1
A very distinct species; MF in UWBM.
6121 6122

§ Disembolus sp. #2
Resembles D. convolutus Millidge. F in UWBM.
6221

§ Disembolus sp. #3
Distinctive; F in UWBM.
6221

§ Disembolus sp. #5
Resembles D. concinnus Millidge. F in UWBM.
6901

Group 10 (Millidge 1977)

§ Satilatlas nr. insolens Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1981c. Millidge distinguished S. insolens by one character only, presence of the fourth metatarsal trichobothrium; that is true of this species and a second from Alaska. Possibly neither is the true S. insolens. M in UWBM.
6992

§ Satilatlas sp. #1
Distinctive; F in UWBM.
8146

§ Anacornia microps Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1933; Chamberlin 1949. The female of A. microps was erroneously redescribed with the male of Porrhomma ocella Chamberlin and Ivie (1943).
8596

§ Walckenaeria subspiralis Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1983. Millidge presented Washington map dots for this, W. directa, W. oregona, and W. cornuella, but the first verifiable state records are those below.
6221 6894 6828 7234 7403

§ Walckenaeria pellax Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1983 (M only) Crawford and Edwards in press (MF). MF in UWBM.
6221 6740 7518 7833 8970

§ Walckenaeria vigilax (Blackwall)
Ref.: Millidge 1983 figs. 125-126 (M); Wiehle 1960 (MF, under Cornicularia); Crawford and Edwards in press (MF). FIRST AMERICAN RECORD. All previous North American records of W. vigilax are misidentified (Millidge 1983); this is believed genuine (Crawford and Edwards in press).
6817

§ Walckenaeria directa (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Millidge 1983.
7032 7041 7931 8214

§ Walckenaeria oregona Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1983. Millidge stated that female W. oregona are distinguished from W. directa by wider spacing of the cheliceral file, but I have females (taken with males) in which this is not the case. To be useful in diagnosis this character should be stated quantitatively (e.g., as striae per 0.1 mm).
6528

§ Walckenaeria columbia Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
W. septentrionalis Millidge 1983 NEW SYNONYM
Ref.: Millidge 1983. Specimens on hand (UWBM) show that the male palp tibia characters used by Millidge to distinguish these species are linked by continuous individual variation. As first reviser, I give W. columbia priority (ICZN Art. 24).
6023 6122 7416 7524 7537 7809 8015 8118 8213 8624

§ Walckenaeria cornuella (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Millidge 1983. The male carapace horn, said to be diagnostic of this species, is variable: sometimes larger than that illustrated by Millidge, sometimes nearly obsolete.
6022 6122 6721 6740 6915 6921 7032 7312 7332 7537 7624 7710 7723 7730 8123 8213 8523 8524 8525 8618 8921

§ Walckenaeria monoceras (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Millidge 1983. Chamberlin and Ivie (1947) reported this species from Washington and Alaska as well as the type locality in Oregon, but Millidge (1983) seems to have assigned those records to W. cornuella.
6022 6122 7227

§ Walckenaeria auranticeps (Emerton)
Ref.: Millidge 1983.
7227 7328

§ Walckenaeria holmi Millidge FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Millidge 1983 (with unverifiable U.S. map dots).
8699

§ Walckenaeria atrotibialis O. Pickard-Cambridge
Ref.: Millidge 1983.
5916 7107

Group 13 (Millidge 1977)

§ Entelecara acuminata (Wider)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953, Wiehle 1960. FIRST AMERICAN RECORD. The palp of my one male matches European illustrations very closely; the palp tibia is slightly different and the carapace somewhat higher. This could represent either a Holarctic species or an introduced population.
7519

§ Entelecara nr. sombra (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1947 (under Mythoplastoides). Holm (1950) and Hackman (1954) both suggested synonymy of Mythoplastoides sombrus under Entelecara media Kulczynski. In light of the redescriptions of E. media by Wiehle (1960) and Deltshev (1985), it is clear that Entelecara sombra (NEW COMBINATION) is distinct (SYNONYMY REJECTED). F in UWBM.
7328

Group 16 (Millidge 1977)

§ Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953; Millidge 1985; not Crosby and Bishop 1933.
6821 7026 7110 7306 7332 7433 7519 7521 7533 7623 7711 7714 8213 8214 8517 8617 8921

§ Pocadicnemis occidentalis Millidge
Ref.: Millidge 1975.
6704 6806 7107 8201

§ Hybauchenidium gibbosum (Sørensen)
Ref.: Holm 1967 (under Hybocoptus); Crosby and Bishop 1933, as Hybocoptus dentipalpis (Emerton). Holm (1967) correctly made H. dentipalpis a synonym of H. gibbosus. However, in describing the new genus Hybauchenidium, Holm (1973) listed H. dentipalpis separately and Hybocoptus cymbadentatus Crosby and Bishop (1935) under H. gibbosum. This was doubtless a lapsus calami. Hybauchenidium cymbadentatum (NEW COMBINATION) is a valid species.
8997

§ Hybauchenidium sp. #1
Related to H. gibbosum. F in UWBM.
8970

§ Hybauchenidium sp. #2
Related to H. cymbadentatum. F in UWBM.
7520

Subfamily MICRONETINAE

Microneta viaria (Blackwall)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953; Emerton 1882; Saaristo 1974. Microneta orines Chamberlin and Ivie (1933) is probably a synonym of the variable M. viaria.
6022 6028 6632 6721 6740 6822 6928 6934 7032 7041 7319 7323 7332 7518 7521 7522 7524 7616 7622 7623 7624 7710 7714 7722 8123 8425 8520 8522 8523 8524 8525

§ Centromerus sp. #1
Ref.: Helsdingen 1973 (as "Centromerus spec."; M only). MF in UWBM.
6122 6740 6828 7041 7332 8118 8213 8525 8921

§ Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall) FIRST U.S. RECORD
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953, emended by Locket et al. 1974; Wiehle 1956. Possibly introduced from Europe; previous North American records are from Newfoundland by Hackman (1954) and British Columbia by West et al. (1984).
7622 7624 8921

Meioneta brevipes (Keyserling)
Ref.: Keyserling 1886 (F), under Linyphia; transferred to Meioneta by Chamberlin and Ivie (1947). I cannot recognize this species from the original description; the type, probably at the British Museum, will have to be examined to show which of the many similar Meioneta species this name applies to.
Keyserling (1886): "Washington Territory."

§ Meioneta fillmorana (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1919 (under Bathyphantes; transferred by Ivie 1969; F only). MF in UWBM. M is very close to Meioneta ferosa (Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943), NEW COMBINATION. Meioneta fillmorana is smaller (carapace 0.9-1.1 mm long vs. 1.65), the eyes are relatively larger and occupy a wider area. Meioneta ferosa is the type species of Gnathantes Chamberlin and Ivie, which must fall as a NEW SYNONYM of Meioneta.
5712 6121 6221 6335 6771 7234 7530 8122 8125

§ Meioneta fratrella (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1933.
7305 8597

Meioneta pallida (Emerton)
Microneta pallida of W. Ref.: Emerton 1917 (M). Helsdingen (1973) transferred M. pallida to Meioneta.
Worley (1932): "San Juan Island" (8430-8531) "Blakely Island" (8527-8528) "Cypress Island" (8526-8527) "Orcas Island" (8627-8629).

§ Meioneta sp. #2
MF in UWBM; will be described by Crawford and Edwards (in press). Undescribed Meioneta species are so numerous that their affinities are seldom apparent.
6717 6817 7018

§ Meioneta sp. #3
MF in UWBM; unusual chaetotaxy (all metatarsi with spines).
6221 7110 7882 8624

§ Meioneta sp. #4
F in UWBM.
6121 7312 7934

§ Meioneta sp. #5
F in UWBM.
8227

§ Meioneta sp. #6
MF in UWBM.
6122 6221 6873 7030 7332 8572 8970

§ Meioneta sp. #7
F in UWBM.
5714

§ Meioneta sp. #8
F in UWBM.
6632 7235 7624

§ Meioneta sp. #9
F in UWBM.
5715

§ Meioneta sp. #11
MF in UWBM.
6632 7026 7131 8029 8139 8146 8147 8241

§ Meioneta sp. #12
MF in UWBM.
7303 7403

§ Meioneta sp. #13
MF in UWBM.
6122

§ Meioneta sp. #15
F in UWBM.
8999

§ Tennesseellum formicum (Emerton)
Ref.: Emerton 1882 (M, under Bathyphantes); Kaston 1948 (MF). Crawford and Edwards (in press) will comment on variation.
6122 6221 6821 7107 7110 8970

§ Agyneta sp. #3
MF in UWBM. M very similar to A. allosubtilis Loksa (Hippa and Oksala 1985); F notably different.
6122 6806 7107 8201

§ Agyneta sp. #5
A distinctive species; M in UWBM.
5915

§ Oreonetides vaginatus (Thorell)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1981; Locket and Millidge 1953. This species has a remarkable number of synonyms, of which some, such as Labuella prosaica Chamberlin and Ivie, are still used occasionally.
8699 8970 8997

Oreonetides filicatus (Crosby)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1981 (MF). F illustrated is atypical; most have deeper lateral notches on scape.
6122 6216 6336 6921 7110 7235 7319 7323 7332 7507 7518 7519 8918

§ Oreonetides flavus (Emerton)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1981 (MF).
8699

§ Oreonetides sp. #1
Related to O. flavescens (Crosby). MF in UWBM.
6513 6719 7833 8511 8618

§ Oreonetides sp. #2
Resembles O. flavus. F in UWBM.
8970

§ Oreonetides sp. #3
Close to sp. #1 but half its size. M in UWBM.
6221 7730

§ Poeciloneta aggressa (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943. NEW COMB.
The epigynum is atypical of Poeciloneta, but the chaetotaxy clearly removes it from Lepthyphantes, where it was described.
8699

§ Poeciloneta berthae (Levi and Levi) NEW COMB.
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1955 (F only). Described under Lepthyphantes.
8699

Poeciloneta fructuosa (Keyserling) NEW COMB.
Bathyphantes occidentalis of W. Ref.: Zorsch 1937 (M, under Lepthyphantes). MF in UWBM.
5916 6221

§ Poeciloneta globosa (Wider)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953; Wiehle 1956. Presumably introduced; FIRST AMERICAN RECORD.
7622 7623

Lepthyphantes groups: Using a simple key, Locket and Millidge (1953) divided this genus into five groups which, though artificial, greatly assist in identifying species and matching sexes. They are listed for each species below.

§ Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert)
Ref.: Zorsch 1937; Locket and Millidge 1953. Group 1.
7623 7723 8323

Lepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall)
L. nebulosus of W. Ref.: Zorsch 1937. Group 1.
"Tieton" (6607-6707) 7623 "Sedro Woolley" (8422-8522)

§ Lepthyphantes lyricus Zorsch
Ref.: Zorsch 1937 (M only). MF in UWBM. Group 2.
6221 7026 7131 7211 7332 7533 7710

§ Lepthyphantes furcillifer Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1933 (MF); Zorsch 1937 (M only). Group 3.
6910 7107 7475 7703 7902 8597 8786

§ Lepthyphantes alpinus (Emerton)
Ref.: Emerton 1882; Zorsch 1937. Group 3.
8699

§ Lepthyphantes tenuis (Blackwall)
Ref.: Helsdingen et al. 1977; Locket and Millidge 1953. Group 3.
5626 6028 6121 6122 6204 6221 6335 6505 6873 6827 6829 7018 7026 7027 7028 7030 7133 7222 7403 7417 7422 7423 7502 7518 7520 7523 7622 7623 7624 7721 7723 7730 8122 8821

Lepthyphantes zibus Zorsch
Ref.: Zorsch 1937 (M only). MF in UWBM. Group 3.
6022 6023 6721 6822 7027 7223 7227 7235 7323 7519 7521 7522 7523 7524 7620 7621 7623 7624 8123 8212 8241 8517 8522 8624 8921

Lepthyphantes zebra (Emerton)
Ref.: Emerton 1882 (sub Bathyphantes); Zorsch 1937; Group 3.
Zorsch 1937: "Sol Duc Hot Spring" (7938).

Lepthyphantes zelatus Zorsch
Ref.: Zorsch 1937. Group 3.
5714 6023 6221 6513 6719 6721 6740 6829 6922 6928 7027 7041 7110 7131 7211 7234 7235 7319 7323 7332 7414 7417 7423 7433 7518 7521 7523 7524 7533 7537 7616 7620 7621 7623 7624 7630 7710 7711 7712 7714 7718 7722 7723 7730 7809 7934 7938 8029 8035 8118 8122 8123 8416 8425 8572 8512 8517 8518 8520 8523 8525 8617 8618 8970 8997 8920 8921

Lepthyphantes arboreus (Emerton)
Ref.: Zorsch 1937. Group 3 or 5.
7018 7730 7931 7934 8317 8699 8618 8997

Lepthyphantes arcticus (Keyserling)
Bathyphantes arcticus of W. Ref.: Keyserling 1886 (F, sub Linyphia). This species was known to Emerton and Banks, but Zorsch (1937) omitted it from her study because only the female was described, and subsequent workers have not recognized it. Keyserling's figure of the epigynum does not appear to match any species known to me. Examination of the types (which should be in the Marx collection, U.S. National Museum) may show L. arcticus to be a senior synonym of another species in this list.
Worley (1932): "Olympia" (7028).

§ Lepthyphantes complicatus (Emerton)
Ref.: Zorsch 1937. Group 4b.
8699

§ Lepthyphantes pollicaris Zorsch
Ref.: Zorsch 1937 (M only); Levi and Levi 1955 (F); Chamberlin and Ivie 1943 (F, sub L. tamara). Group 5.
6122 6817 7018 7305 7604 7833 8973 8974 8999

§ Lepthyphantes mercedes Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943. Group 5.
6221 6513 7414 7730 7934 8317 8511 8618 8970

Lepthyphantes rainieri Emerton
L. rainieri of W. Ref.: Emerton 1926 (M non F); Zorsch 1937 (M non F). Group 5. The F described with this species by Emerton and Zorsch is probably L. zelatus. Levi and Levi (1951) illustrated the true F of L. rainieri under the name L. chamberlini Schenkel; Schenkel's species is probably different.
6719 7934 8699 8790 8997 8999

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #6
Group 4b, near the European L. angulatus (O. Pickard-Cambridge). MF in UWBM.
6122 6928 7414 7521 7710 8525

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #8
Group 4a, near the European L. insignis O. Pickard-Cambridge. MF in UWBM.
7623 7624 7722

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #9
Group 3, near L. zibus. F in UWBM.
7523 7722

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #11
Group 3. F in UWBM.
7710

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #12
Group 3. F in UWBM.
7809

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #13
Group 4b. F in UWBM.
8699

§ Lepthyphantes sp. #14
Distinctive M (no known group) in UWBM.
8699

Subfamily DRAPETISCINAE

Saaristoa sammamish (Levi and Levi) NEW COMB.
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1955 (sub Lepthyphantes). Resembles the European S. abnormis (Blackwall). For description of the latter, see Wiehle (1956) under Oreonetides, where it was placed until recently (Millidge 1978).
6740 7220 7517 7622

§ Aphileta sp. #1
Placed here with some uncertainty; the embolic division is somewhat more complex than that depicted by Millidge (1977) (for generic characters see Locket and Millidge 1953, under Hillhousia). M in UWBM.
7524 8624

Arcuphantes arcuatus (Keyserling)
Lepthyphantes arcuatus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943.
5918 7235 7518 7620 7623 "Everett" (7921-7922) 7936 8618 8921

§ Arcuphantes potteri Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943 (F only).
8694

§ Arcuphantes nr. sylvaticus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943.
7783

Helophora reducta (Keyserling)
Linyphia reducta of W. Apparently this common species has never been adequately described. The most recent description is that of Blauvelt (1936) who combined H. reducta with the distinct H. orinoma.
5916 6221 7030 7105 7323 7423 7520 7524 7623 7624 7708 7714 8122 8617 8624 8921

§ Helophora orinoma (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1919 (F); Chamberlin and Ivie 1933 (M); both under Linyphia.
6221 7006

§ Wubana suprema Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1936 (M only). MF in UWBM.
8618

Wubana pacifica (Banks)
Nematogmus pacificus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1936.
6028 6122 6336 7041 7110 7323 7332 7518 7520 7522 7523 7524 7620 7623 7624 7630 7714 7722 7723 7833 8214 8518 8520 8525 8624 8921

Wubana atypica Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1936.
6022 6122 6721 7220 7227 7235 7323 7417 7518 7523 7524 7623 7624 7722 7815 8213 8214 8517 8522 8921

Subfamily LINYPHIINAE

The first six genera below were placed by Millidge (1984a) in his informal "Stemonyphantes group," not formally named because it is "almost certainly paraphyletic." In my view, paraphyletic taxa are perfectly acceptable. Taxonomic research must produce a usable classification, not merely a set of phylogenetic hypotheses. All named taxa must be classified, even if only provisionally. In any case, several genera seem transitional between the Stemonyphantes group and Linyphiinae.

Ostearius melanopygius (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953, emended by Locket et al. 1974. This species was recorded from "Seattle" (Exline collection) by Bishop and Crosby (1938) under the synonym Scolopembolus melacrus (Chamberlin), synonymy by Ivie (1967).

§ Eulaira nr. schediana Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1945. I cannot with certainty separate this species from E. obscura Chamberlin and Ivie (1945).
6704 7107

§ Eulaira sp. #1
MF in UWBM; close to E. microtarsus (Emerton), for which see Chamberlin and Ivie (1945). Ivie (1967) transferred that species to Hillhousia (=Aphileta), but according to Millidge (1984b: 161) it probably does not belong there; I provisionally return it to Eulaira, where it fits fairly well.
7305 7934 8699 8970 8997

Linyphantes pacificus (Banks)
Bathyphantes pacifica of W. Ref.: Banks 1906; transferred to Linyphantes by Ivie (1967). This will probably prove to be a senior synonym of L. natches. Linyphantes pacificus Chamberlin and Ivie (1942a) is a different species whose name is preoccupied by L. pacificus Banks; a revision of the genus would be the best place to propose a replacement name for the former.
Banks (1906): "Olympia" (7028), type locality.

§ Linyphantes aeronauticus (Petrunkevitch)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a, under L. ephedrus; synonymy by Helsdingen (1973). Chamberlin and Ivie's figure 107 is atypical and possibly belongs to another species; the scape should be wider and is usually wrinkled. The ventral views of epigyna given by Chamberlin and Ivie are not always sufficient for diagnosis of females in this genus. Posterior views, at high magnification, are very helpful.
5906 6335 7502

Linyphantes natches Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a.
6221 6828 7220 7421 7423 7518 7519 7523 7533 7536 7620 7624 7643 7723 8029

§ Linyphantes nehalem Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a.
6221 6240 6821 6829 7026 7131 7622 7643 7712 7723 8029 8122 8147[MCZ]

Linyphantes pualla Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a.
6016 6022 6216 6335 6336 6719 6721 6921 6922 7026 7235 7417 7518 7523 7524 7620 7624 7630 7710 7714 7718 7723 7934 8118 8212 8213 8512 8518 8520 8973 8921

§ Linyphantes nr. victoria Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a. None of my males perfectly match Chamberlin and Ivie's figure 122.
6028 6122 6221 6826 6829 6928 7027 7323 7328 7518 7520 7521 7530 7537 7617 7623 7624 8029 8624

§ Linyphantes nr. eureka Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (M only).
6221

Linyphantes anacortes Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a.
6740 7041 7323 7523 7524 8147 8241

§ Linyphantes orcinus (Emerton)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a, under L. longivulva; synonymy by Helsdingen (1973).
6740 7041 7938 8029 8139 8146 8241

§ Linyphantes sp. #1
Resembles L. pualla. MF in UWBM.
6022 6740 7323 7417 7433 7518 7519 7520 7521 7522 7523 7524 7621 7623 7624 7723 7816 8118 8213 8518 8624 8921

§ Linyphantes sp. #2
Related to L. laguna Chamberlin and Ivie. MF in UWBM.
7030

§ Linyphantes sp. #3
Resembles L. victoria. F in UWBM.
7227

§ Linyphantes sp. #4
Sp. #4 or sp. #5 could be the F of L. eureka. F in UWBM.
6221

§ Linyphantes sp. #5
F in UWBM.
6221 7433 7616

§ Linyphantes sp. #6
Resembles L. nehalem. F in UWBM.
6740

§ Frontinella communis (Hentz)
Ref.: Emerton 1882; Kaston 1948. The synonymy of F. communis under F. pyramitela (Walckenaer) by Chamberlin and Ivie (1944) has not been universally accepted.
8372 8572

Stemonyphantes blauveltae Gertsch
Linyphia lineata of W. Ref.: Helsdingen 1968.
Worley (1932): "Pullman" (6771).

Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1970.
7475 7693

Microlinyphia mandibulata (Emerton)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1970.
5718 6122 6221 6335 6336 6632 6794[MCZ] 6827 6828 6829 6992 6905 6928 7006 7026 7028 7131 7133 7328 7332 7475 7403 7429 7593 7693 7696 7622 7721 7931 8099 8029 8147[MCZ] 8372

Microlinyphia dana (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1970.
6028 6221 6240 6335 6336 6522 6528 6632 6740 6821 6822 6826 6827 6928 6934 7026 7027 7028 7032 7041 7131 7220 7234 7235 7319 7323 7328 7330 7332 7418 7429 7433 7517 7518 7519 7520 7521 7522 7523 7524 7533 7616 7617 7618 7620 7621 7622 7623 7624 7643 7712 7714 7718 7720 7721 7722 7723 7728 7730 7821 7839 7931 7934 7936 7938 7946 8029 8035 8122 8123 8125 8139 8146 8147 8213 8214 8241 8346 8518 8523 8525 8921

§ Microlinyphia impigra (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1970.
7622

Neriene digna (Keyserling) GENUS REVALIDATED
Linyphia digna of W. Ref.: Helsdingen 1969. Locket et al. (1974) reduced Neriene to a subgenus of Linyphia, and have been followed by Brignoli (1983) and Merrett et al. (1985). I do not find the reasons given convincing, in view of the ample justification given by Helsdingen for raising Neriene to full genus.
5712 5714 5716 5915 5916 5923 6072 6022 6028 6122 6240 6335 6336 6337 6524 6528 6632 6639 6709 6721 6740 6822 6826 6828 6928 7026 7027 7028 7032 7034 7107 7110 7131 7133 7220 7227 7234 7319 7323 7328 7332 7420[MCZ] 7421 7433 7518 7520 7521 7522 7523 7524 7526 7530 7533 7537 7616 7621 7622 7623 7624 7625 7783 7703 7718 7721 7722 7723 7728 7730 7807 7809 7822 7839 7936 7938 7946 8029 8122 8123 8125 8139 8146[MCZ] 8147 8214 8216 8241 8416 8597 8516 8517 8523 8525 8530 8617 8624 8921

Neriene litigiosa (Keyserling)
Linyphia litigiosa of W. Ref.: Helsdingen 1969.
5915 6072 6016 6022 6524 6709 6822 6827 7003 7026 7027 7028 7034 7107 7108 7222 7311 7332 7475 7433 7575 7507 7523 7526 7623 7624 7783 7703 7721 7722 7723 7809 7903 7935 7938 8027 8029 8030 8182 8122 8125 8129 8372 8497 8426 8523 8528 8530 8600 8973

Neriene radiata (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Helsdingen 1969. Usually called Linyphia or Prolinyphia marginata (C. Koch), a name that is preoccupied in Neriene. These are the first Washington records since Emerton (1920).
5716 6072 6022 7003 7809 8214 8372 8572 8694 8873 8973

Kaestneria pullata (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
Ref.: Ivie 1969 (under Bathyphantes). I follow Wiehle (1956), Millidge (1977), and Merrett et al. (1985) in considering Kaestneria a full genus (the genitalic pattern is quite different from Bathyphantes), and the latter two works in placing K. pullata in Kaestneria. The subgenus Coniphantes Ivie, 1969, with pullatus as type species, accordingly falls as a NEW SYNONYM of Kaestneria Wiehle, 1956, and the other species listed there by Ivie (1969) must be transferred: Kaestneria rufula (Hackman), NEW COMBINATION and Kaestneria anceps (Kulczynski), combination used by Eskov (1984).
6740 6828 7520 7622 7714 8122

§ Kaestneria sp. #1
The epigynum shows clear relation to K. pullata and K. rufula but the chaetotaxy is very different, with tibial ventral and metatarsal spines. F in UWBM.
7603 8873 8997

§ Porrhomma convexum (Westring)
Ref.: Locket and Millidge 1953; Wiehle 1956. The only previous North American records of this Holarctic species are those of Holm (1960) from Alaska.
6122 6221 8624 8921

§ Porrhomma nr. terrestre (Emerton)
Ref.: Bishop and Crosby (1938), as Sciastes terrestris; transferred to Porrhomma by Ivie (1967). While more likely to be this species, my specimen also resembles the illustrations by Wiehle (1956) of Porrhomma egeria Simon.
8821

Porrhomma sodontum (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1949 (F, as Willibaldia sodonta); transferred by Thaler (1968).
Chamberlin (1949): "White R. Camp, Rainier Park" (6916), type and only locality.

Bathyphantes keenii (Emerton)
Ref.: Ivie 1969. Eskov (1985) listed B. keenii and B. rupestris Holm (1945) in synonymy under B. reprobus Kulczynski (1916). I concur with the synonymy of B. rupestris; Holm's and Kulczynski's descriptions match closely. B. keenii, however, has a very different male palp (compare Holm 1945 with Ivie 1967), a shorter epigynal scape, and differs also in size and leg proportions; it is clearly a distinct species (SYNONYMY REJECTED). B. keenii and B. reprobus do show relationship in common possession of metatarsal spines, noted for B. reprobus by Kulczynski but not previously reported for B. keenii.
6022 6340 6723 7026 7027 7041 7131 7235 7328 7332 7433 7518 7617 7624 7714 7718 8122 8147[MCZ] 8213

Bathyphantes malkini Ivie
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
7235

Bathyphantes pallidus (Banks)
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
6504 8921

Bathyphantes brevipes (Emerton)
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
6335 6740 7027 7234 7328 7620 7622 7624 7721 8524

§ Bathyphantes nr. latescens (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
6504

Bathyphantes waneta Ivie
Ref.: Ivie 1969. Western Washington specimens are slightly different from the eastern Washington type series.
6804 6992 8821 8970

Bathyphantes orica Ivie
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
6335 6721 6740 7027 7041 7223 7518 7522 7523 7620 7624 7718 8518 8525

§ Bathyphantes diasosnemis Fage
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
8921

Bathyphantes alascensis (Banks)
Ref.: Ivie 1969.
5915 5916 6022 6122 6340 7433 7523 7938 8324 8522 8524 8618 8624

Bathyphantes magnificus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Ivie 1969 (F). This species may belong in a separate genus, for which the subgenus name Magniphantes Ivie is available, but I hesitate to make this change without seeing specimens.
Ivie (1969): "Five miles east of McCleary" (7031).

Bathyphantes concolor (Wider)
Ref.: Ivie 1969. Sole member of the subgenus Diplostyla Emerton, which recent European papers treat as a full genus. However highly modified, the genitalia of Diplostyla follow the pattern of Bathyphantes, where B. concolor is placed here.
6504 7622 7623

§ Bathyphantes sp. #1
Related to B. gracilis (Blackwall). F in UWBM.
5620

§ Bathyphantes sp. #2
Near B. brevipes. MF in UWBM.
6336 7518

§ Bathyphantes sp. #3
Near B. chico Ivie. F in UWBM.
6829

Pityohyphantes rubrofasciatus (Keyserling)
Pityohyphantes vancouveranus Chamberlin and Ivie (1942a), NEW SYNONYM. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (M); Keyserling 1886 (MF, sub Linyphia). Keyserling's description of the distinctive color characters and figure of the epigynum make this synonymy reasonably certain, but it should be confirmed by examination of types. The name Linyphia rubrofasciata Keyserling has previously been misapplied. Specimens of Pityohyphantes tacoma at Oregon State University have been so identified; Worley's (1932) description indicates that his Washington records may apply to a Microlinyphia species; Schenkel (1950) treated this taxon as a subspecies of P. phrygianus (C. Koch).
     A ventral view of the epigynum is not usually sufficient to identify female Pityohyphantes; posterior, lateral, and internal views are needed, and the abdomen color pattern is often helpful.
6122 6221 6817 6822 6827 6928 7028 7041 7133 7234 7330 7332 7418 7433 7521 "Seattle" 7533 7730 7931 7936 8029 8122 8214 8241 8317 8530

Pityohyphantes tacoma Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (M). MF in UWBM. This species, as treated here, is at least polymorphic and may have to be split when more information is available.
5916 6022 6216 6632 6740 6910[MCZ] 6928 7009 7026 7028 7031 7041 7131 7133 7211 7220 7305 7315 7319 7433 7519 7520 7521 7524 7533 7712 7718 7722 7730 7733 7807 7821 7931 7938 8029 8122 8123 8146 8214 8216 8241 8317 8511 8518 8523 8618 8818 8970

§ Pityohyphantes minidoka Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943.
6216 6513 6704 6804 6814[MCZ] 7003 7009 7107 7110 7205 7305 7311 7409 7507 7603 7604 7605 7710 7806 7903 8372 8497 8499 8572 8597 8506 8507 8699 8970 8997 8999

§ Pityohyphantes alticeps Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943 (M). MF in UWBM.
6078[MCZ] 6016 7009 7710 8372 8572 8970

§ Pityohyphantes kamela Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943.
6221

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #1
Distinctive species. MF in UWBM.
7414 7730 7733 7934

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #2
Near P. kamela. F in UWBM.
7934

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #3
Near P. kamela. F in UWBM.
7507 8698

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #4
Near P. rubrofasciatus. F in UWBM.
7931

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #5
Near P. rubrofasciatus. F in UWBM.
7507 7809

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #6
Near P. kamela. F in UWBM.
7833

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #7
Near P. minidoka. F in UWBM.
7234

§ Pityohyphantes sp. #8
Very distinctive species. F in UWBM.
8530

INCERTAE SEDIS

The synonymy and relationships of the genus Pimoa are problematic. Fage (1946) suggested that the several American species placed first in Labulla, then in Pimoa, actually belonged in his genus Metella with M. breuili Fage, 1931, from southern Europe, and M. crispa Fage, 1946, from India. However, Metella is preoccupied, so if this synonymy is accepted then Pimoa Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, becomes a senior synonym of the replacement name Louisfagea Brignoli, 1971. Whether that is accepted or not, Pimoa is the correct name for the American species. Wunderlich (1979) placed both Pimoa and Louisfagea=Metella under the fossil genus Acrometa Petrunkevitch, 1942, but neither synonymy was accepted by Brignoli (1983); I, too, find the synonymy under Acrometa dubious. Nonetheless, Pimoa and Louisfagea have so much in common that it may be better to unite them in one genus.
     Brignoli (1983) has also removed Pimoa from the Linyphiidae, where it was described, and placed it in the orbweaver subfamily (family, in his system) Metinae, where Louisfagea and Acrometa were previously listed. There is much to be said for this placement. The somatic characters are close to those of Meta; the conformation of the male palp is nearly identical to that of Chrysometa, including the distinctive cymbial apophysis (see Levi 1986). However, several other characters make such a placement impossible. Most importantly, the spiders make a typical linyphiid-type sheet web rather than an orbweb; they move on the undersurface of a consolidated sheet above which are tangled threads. The presence of a retreat lateral to the web suggests affinities with Theridiidae or the orbweaver families. Males of both Pimoa altioculata and Louisfagea breuili have lateral cheliceral stridulating files, heretofore found only in Linyphiidae and Mimetidae. The epigynum has a prominent scape. The relictual distribution implies great age for this group of genera, and they may prove to be derived from Chrysometa—like ancestors of modern linyphiids. Further study of this group should prove illuminating to phylogenetic studies, and it is probable that separate family status will prove justified. The tribal name Acrometini Wunderlich, 1979, is available.

Pimoa curvata Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943 (F). MF in UWBM.
5712 5714 5916 7009 7107 7108 7303 7305 7507 7807 8699

Pimoa altioculata (Keyserling)
Ref.: Gertsch and Ivie 1936 (figs. 40-41, F only, under Labulla); Wunderluch 1979 (MF). The records below include a few "dwarf" specimens which may possibly represent a distinct species.
5915 5916 5918 6016 6022 6122 6335 6336 6721 6723 6822 6826 6928 7018 7026 7027 7028 7041 7235 7320 7322 7323 7324 7330 7421 7423 7518 7519 7521 7522 7523 7524 7621 7622 7623 7630 7718 7722 7730 7816 7823 8213 8523 8524 8530 8617 8624 8921

§ Pimoa haden Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943.
8572 8973

Family OXYOPIDAE

Oxyopes scalaris Hentz
O. rufipes of W. Ref.: Brady 1964.
6016 6178[MCZ] 6293[MCZ] 6297 6397 6488 6496 6504 6632 6894 6804 6805 6992 6910[MCZ] 7299 7303 7332 7475 7498 7403 7696 7603 7703 7882 8000 8300 8572 8694

Family LYCOSIDAE

§ Tarentula aculeata (Clerck)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1979 (under Alopecosa). Dondale and Redner argued that the generic name Tarentula Sundevall, 1832, is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Tarantula Fabricius, 1793, and thus unavailable (ICZN Art. 33). However, since the Sundevall name was proposed for a different nominal taxon, it was in intention a homonym (ICZN glossary; use of the glossary is mandatory by Art. 87a) rather than a subsequent spelling of any sort. Sundevall evidently believed (see Dondale and Redner 1979:1034) that his homonymous name would be available because the senior homonym was unavailable. Sundevall was incorrect, but since his name Tarentula is not actually a homonym (ICZN Art. 56b), it is the correct name for the genus to which it has traditionally been applied. This will remain the case unless the ICZN is petitioned to stabilize the junior synonym Alopecosa. Perhaps that is the only way to achieve general agreement on this question. If such application is made, "existing usage" (the most common current usage, whatever that is determined to be) will have to be maintained pending the commission's decision (ICZN Art. 80). Unless and until such application is made, the senior name Tarentula will remain correct.
6704 6928 7475 7575 8083 8572 8698 8873

Tarentula kochii Keyserling
Alopecosa kochi of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1979 (under Alopecosa).
5712 5915 5916 5918 6022 6121 6122 6221 6429 6597 6806 6814[MCZ] 6827 6999 6900 6916 "Moses Lake" (7092-7193) 7099 7028 7107 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7330 7403 7414 7429 7520 7526 7533 7604 7616 7623 7809 7832 7903 "Everett" (7921-7922) 7934 8182 8133 8371 8530 8694 8974

§ Schizocosa minnesotensis (Gertsch)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978a.
6902

§ Schizocosa communis (Emerton)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978a.
6894 6973 7475

Schizocosa mccooki (Montgomery)
Lycosa avida of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978a. Dondale and Redner have treated under the two names S. mccooki and S. communis a taxonomic situation which I believe is more complex. Along the eastern edge of Washington, some specimens match the characters of S. communis (and are cited as such above), others match S. mccooki, and a number of specimens from the same localities are difficult to place. The discovery of Schizocosa species in Illinois indistinguishable by genitalia (Uetz and Dondale 1979, Uetz and Denterlein 1979) leads me to wonder if a similar situation exists here. Maturation dates of reared specimens fall into distinct groups. Also, I suspect that further study will lead to resurrection of the name Schizocosa wasatchensis Chamberlin and Ivie for occasional very large specimens.
5716 6072 6709 6873 7004 7103 7385 7475 7403 7693 7696 7602 7603 8182 8895

§ Schizocosa sp. #1
Distinctive species with long embolus. M in UWBM.
6221

§ Schizocosa sp. #2
Resembles S. retrorsa (Banks). M in UWBM.
7099

Lycosa coloradensis Banks
L. coloradensis of W. Ref.: Chamberlin 1908.
Worley (1932): "Govan" (7788).

§ Lycosa frondicola Emerton
Ref.: Chamberlin 1908; Kaston 1948.
8786

Trochosa pratensis (Emerton) SYNONYMY REJECTED
Lycosa pratensis of W. Ref.: Kaston 1948; Brady 1980 (under T. terricola). Gertsch (1934b) first mentioned the close similarity of T. pratensis with T. terricola Thorell, but kept T. pratensis separate because of minor differences. Hackman (1954) confusingly stated that "following Gertsch (1934) I have considered pratensis Emerton as an eastern North American subspecies of Trochosa terricola...." Brady (1980) was the first to provide supporting evidence for synonymy of pratensis under terricola. He stated that he had examined 38 European specimens of T. terricola and 1300 American specimens of T. pratensis and could not distinguish them. I have examined only one-tenth as much material and thus my observations may be open to question, but for what they are worth they support separation of the two species.
    Full species of Trochosa in Europe are distinguished by very subtle characters (Locket and Millidge 1951; Locket et al. 1974; Engelhardt 1964). I have compared T. pratensis from Washington and Alaska (UWBM), Connecticut, and Montana (B. R. Vogel collection) with T. terricola from England and Scotland (UWBM) and found at least two consistent differences: 1) in pratensis the male first leg tarsus is dark, in terricola a contrasting light color (this is used as a decisive key character by Locket and Millidge); 2) the male palp cymbium length/depth in pratensis is 3.1-3.9, in terricola 2.6-2.8 (the narrow distal part of the cymbium is proportionally longer in pratensis). I suspect there are other distinguishing meristic characters, some applying to females, but have insufficient European material to test this idea. Considerable genitalic variation in North American populations of this species is shown in Brady's (1980) illustrations. The problem merits further intensive study.
6504 6704 6894 6992 7006 "Grand Coulee" (7593-7694) "Spokane" (7673-7674) 7773 8272

Melocosa fumosa (Emerton)
Lycosa fumosa of W. Ref.: Leech 1969.
6817 8510

§ Arctosa alpigena (Doleschall)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1983. In recent European literature (e.g. Locket et al. 1974, Merrett et al. 1985), this species has been placed in the genus Tricca. I accept Dondale and Redner's synonymy of Tricca under Arctosa. Although the latter placed map dots in Washington for this species, the first verifiable Washington records follow.
6717 6815 6817 7018 7809 7833 7934 8410 8970

Arctosa littoralis (Hentz)
Arctosa cinerea of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1983.
"Grande Ronde River" (6070-6074) 6582 6999

Pirata piraticus (Clerck)
Pirata febriculosa of W. Ref.: Wallace and Exline 1978; Locket and Millidge (1951) gave conventional illustrations.
6340 6504 6632 7028 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7131 7332 7620 7622 7624 7723 7931[MCZ] 8146 8147 8518 8524 8918

§ Pirata insularis Emerton
Ref.: Wallace and Exline 1978; Kaston 1948.
6504 6992

Pirata sedentarius Montgomery
Ref.: Wallace and Exline 1978; Kaston 1948 (as P. maculatus). Wallace and Exline cited the sole Washington record of this species as "Pierce County, Washington," referring the reader for more complete data to a card file at the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. G. B. Edwards (in litt.) has kindly transcribed the full data from this card file as follows: "Ft. Lewis, Pierce County, September 9, 1936, Holloway" [Exline-Peck Collection, California Academy of Sciences].

§ Pardosa uintana Gertsch
Ref.: Lowrie and Dondale 1981.
8699

§ Pardosa dorsuncata Lowrie and Dondale
P. mackenziana (in part) of W. Ref.: Lowrie and Dondale 1981. The first verifiable Washington records of this species and P. uintana are those below, though Lowrie and Dondale presented map dots from the state.
6022 6122 6221 6639 6821 6822 6827 6829 6928 7020 7026 7027 7028 7034 7104 7131 7235 7332 7417 7429 7433 7519 7521 7531 7533 7617 7710 7714 7718 7730 7731 7816 7839 7931 7934 7938 8019 8123 8146 8147 8214 8217 8317 8410 8416 8597 8506 8507 8511 8516 8517 8617 8618 8970 8997 8999 8918 8921

Pardosa rainieriana Lowrie and Dondale
Ref.: Lowrie and Dondale 1981.
6122 6717 6817 6917 8510

Pardosa mackenziana (Keyserling)
P. mackenziana (in part) of W. Ref.: Lowrie and Dondale 1981 (under P. mackenziana and P. dorsalis). In addition to redescribing P. mackenziana, Lowrie and Dondale resurrected two former synonyms, P. dorsalis Banks and P. uncata (Thorell) for closely allied species. Most Washington specimens in this complex apparently were ascribed by them to P. dorsalis, said to differ from P. mackenziana by the pointed (vs. truncate) tegular apophysis (males), untoothed terminal apophysis (males), and smaller lateral epigynal swellings (females). In addition to the numerous Washington specimens cited below, I have reexamined a portion of the material used by Lowrie and Dondale (B.R.Vogel collection), chiefly from Montana, Utah, and Colorado, with the following results:
     All the Rocky Mountains males identified by Lowrie as P. dorsalis are much closer to Rocky Mountains P. mackenziana than they are to typical Washington specimens (in UWBM). Males from Colorado (where the holotype female of P. dorsalis was collected) have a toothed terminal apophysis. Most have the tegular apophysis less truncate than in typical P. mackenziana, but intermediates are numerous and there is no clear gap between the two. Females are so variable that I was unable to separate them into distinct groups with regard to lateral swellings or any other character. Most males from Washington have the tegular apophysis far more pointed than any Rocky Mountains specimen; but larger population samples sometimes include truncate and intermediate forms of tegular apophysis. In Washington, even males with a strongly truncate tegular apophysis have an untoothed terminal apophysis.
     My conclusion: the characters used by Lowrie and Dondale to distinguish P. dorsalis from P. mackenziana represent geographic variation. The far western populations merit subspecies status, but that subspecies cannot be called dorsalis since the latter's type is from Colorado. Individuals resembling the Rocky Mountains and Washington forms do occur in each other's range. This is not, however, species sympatry, but shows instead that the character states involved are present in both forms but in differing and sometimes discordant frequencies. I have not studied specimens of P. uncata, but suspect that a similar situation may exist there. In any case, the traditional synonymy of P. dorsalis under P. mackenziana is confirmed.
5916 6016 6017 6018 6121 6122 6216 6221 6223 6717 6719 6817 6916 7003 7004 7009 7013 7018 7103 7105 7108 7110 7211 7303 7305 7411 7414 7531 7604 7605 7730 7733 7806 7809 7833 7903 7934 7936 8111 8399 8317 8497 8410 8572 8699 8786 8872 8873 8970 8973 8974 8997 8999

Pardosa wyuta Gertsch
Ref.: Chamberlin 1908 (F, as P. atra Banks); Levi and Levi 1955 (M). The name Pardosa wyuta was proposed by Gertsch (1934a) as a replacement name for Pardosa atra Banks, 1894, which he considered preoccupied by Lycosa atra Giebel, 1869, published for the first and only time in combination with Pardosa by Gertsch (1934a), no reasons given. Apparently Lycosa atra Giebel is not now recognized as a valid species of Pardosa, and as stated by Bonnet (1957), the replacement name was probably not necessary. However, by ICZN Art. 59b, Pardosa wyuta must stand as the valid name for this species.
6072 6122 6221 6240 6806 6814[MCZ] 6815 6973 6999 6900 6902 6905 7002 7004 7008 7009 7103 7105 7108 7303 7330 7403 7405 7417 7418 7429 7504 7505 7518 7696 7602 7604 7623 7809 7934 8000 8013 8317 8572 8587 8595 8596 8506 8699 8970 8918

Pardosa tristis (Thorell)
P. groenlandica (in part) of W. Ref.: Levi and Levi 1951 (as P. groenlandica; F illustrated is atypical). In the past, the species now called P. tristis was usually treated under P. groenlandica (Thorell), but is distinct from the latter as illustrated by Kronestedt (1975). As Kronestedt pointed out, application of the name P. tristis is also uncertain because type specimens are lacking. Placement of the Columbia Basin form recorded here under the Rocky Mountains P. tristis is untested, but seems the best course pending further investigation.
"Yakima" (6504-6605) 6678 6685 6688 6771 6704 6873 6072 6804 6992 6999 6902 6905 7099 7002 7004 7006 7008 7199 7103 7105 7107 7110 7385 7303 7475 7498 7504 7507 "Spokane" (7673-7674) 7693 7696 7603 7783 "Wilbur" (7786-7787) 8497 8595 8680 8694 8873 8895 8991

Pardosa lowriei Kronestedt
P. groenlandica (in part) of W. Ref.: Kronestedt 1975.
6632 6917 7235 7417 7433 7618 7816 "Stillaguamish River" 8147 8528

Pardosa sinistra (Thorell)
Ref.: Kronestedt 1981.
6717 6817 6917 7833 7937 8818

§ Pardosa concinna (Thorell)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1986; Emerton 1911 (as P. muscicola). Dondale and Redner presented Washington map dots for this and several other species, but these are the first verifiable records from the state.
7932 8699 8999

§ Pardosa nr. anomala Gertsch
Ref.: Gertsch 1933a (F); Levi and Levi 1951 (M). My specimens differ slightly in both sexes from those illustrated.
8999 8918

Pardosa altamontis Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Vogel 1970.
6221 6504 6688 6771 6894 6805 6992 6905 7099 7009 7103 7105 7299 7385 7313 7475 7593 7604 7605 7783 7873 8372 8399 8497 8572 8790 8895

Pardosa vancouveri Emerton
P. vancouveri of W. Ref.: Vogel 1970.
5918 6022 6028 6221 6240 6519 6639 6826 6829 6928 6934 7028 7031 7032 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7110 7131 7133 7219 7220 7328 7330 7331 7332 7417 7421 7429 7433 7518 7520 7521 7522 7533 7618 7622 7623 7624 7718 7720 7723 7730 7816 7822 7839 7931[MCZ] 8123 8125 8133 8146 8241 8317 8346 8517 8918 8921

§ Pardosa metlakatla Emerton
P. metlakatla of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1986.
6216 6513 6639 6928 "Cle Elum" (7109-7209) 7212 7623 7723 8029 8241 8524

Pardosa coloradensis Banks
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1986.
6893 6894 6992 7099 7003 7108 7575 7604 7783 8201 8497 8597 8895

Pardosa xerampelina (Keyserling)
P. xerampelina of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1986; Chamberlin and Ivie 1947 (F).
6519 6822 7220 7417 7433 7518 "Seattle" 7718 7722 7816 7818 8372 8572 8921

§ Pardosa distincta (Blackwall)
Ref.: Gertsch and Wallace 1935; Vogel 1964.
6829 8029 8629 8790

§ Pardosa steva Lowrie and Gertsch
Ref.: Barnes 1959.
6072 6471 7006

Pardosa moesta Banks
Ref.: Kaston 1948; Dondale and Redner 1987.
6221 6504 6992 7133 7328 7931[MCZ] 8029 8146 8147 8272 8372 8317 8572 8578 8921

§ Pardosa californica Keyserling
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1987.
6632

§ Pardosa sp. #1
A sea beach species in the P. groenlandica group. MF in UWBM.
6340 8346

§ Pardosa sp. #2
Close to P. sinistra. F in UWBM.
7934

§ Pardosa sp. #3
Some specimens closely resemble P. fuscula (Thorell), but the internal genitalia and proportions of the atrium are different (cf. Dondale and Redner 1987). F in UWBM.
8506 8997

§ Pardosa sp. #4
Related to P. pauxilla Montgomery. M in UWBM.
6905

Family PISAURIDAE

Lehtinen (1967) kept Dolomedes in a family Dolomedidae under Lycosoidea while establishing a separate superfamily Pisauroidea for typical Pisauridae, the superfamily characters being "presence of feathery hairs, the largely different basic abdominal pattern, and the lack of a secondary conductor." Since none of these constitutes a clear synapomorphy (feathery hairs are almost certainly plesiomorphic), it seems better to leave Pisauridae in its classical form and position pending further study.

Dolomedes triton scapularis C. Koch NEW STATUS
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1946; Carico 1973. Chamberlin and Ivie (1946) elevated D. scapularis (misspelled by them as scopularis), formerly listed as a synonym of D. triton (Walckenaer), to full species status together with two similar species, D. sexpunctatus Hentz and D. spatulatus Chamberlin and Ivie (all based on the male tibial apophysis). Carico (1973) placed all three back under D. triton, citing a series of fourteen males (which he illustrated) from Tennessee, showing a wide range of form in the tibial apophysis, but not including the D. scapularis form. Examination of Carico's illustrations suggests to me that two sympatric species are represented, one combining smaller size with a narrower tibial apophysis. Carico stated that Dolomedes genitalia show "extreme variation" in size. I have found that in most spider species, genitalic size is nearly constant; thus, Carico might have combined similar species differing in genitalic size. All males from Washington have the D. scapularis form of tibial apophysis, and as Chamberlin and Ivie stated that most northern records pertain to D. scapularis, this taxon probably deserves at least subspecific rank.
7027 7028 7520 7719 7722 7723 7822 8000 8790

Family HAHNIIDAE

See under Agelenidae for comments on Lehtinen's (1967) expansion of this family, rejected here.

Neoantistea agilis (Keyserling)
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
8572 8790

Neoantistea gosiuta Gertsch
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
Exline (1938): "Coulee City" (ca. 7692).

Neoantistea magna (Keyserling)
Hahnia magna of W. Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
8146 8372 8997

Hahnia cinerea Emerton
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
6740 7008 7708 7882 7815 8212 8214 8597 8617

Hahnia arizonica Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
Opell (1974): "Cedar Lake" (8975) [American Museum of Natural History, New York ].

Hahnia sanjuanensis Exline
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976.
Exline (1938): "Friday Harbor" (8530), type locality.

§ Hahnia nr. glacialis Sørensen
Ref.: Opell and Beatty 1976. Hahnia seems to be one of the groups in which size of genitalia remains constant within a species. I therefore doubt that the specimens recorded here are conspecific with H. glacialis, since both palp and epigynum are considerably smaller than those illustrated from Greenland (the type locality) by Brändegaard (1937). Further study may result in resurrection of H. monticola Bryant, synonymized by Opell and Beatty. The two new species recorded below also belong to this group, and others may exist.
6817

§ Hahnia sp. #1
Related to H. glacialis. MF in UWBM.
6122 7235

§ Hahnia sp. #2
Related to H. glacialis. MF in UWBM.
7833 7934

Family AGELENIDAE

Lehtinen (1967) limited Agelenidae to "typical agelenids" (including the first five genera below) and transferred the others to other families. Brignoli (1983) accepted these changes, but most others have ignored them. I prefer, and use here, the broader, more traditional Agelenidae of Roth and Brame (1972). Lehtinen's reclassification assumes that the character usually used to define Agelenidae (uniseriate tarsal trichobothria increasing in length distally) is a basic pattern common to several superfamilies, most of which have lost it secondarily. This contention is supported by reference to his tables of characters of different taxa. But since these tables are already arranged according to the relimited taxa the data are used to support, the argument here is completely circular. I think it far likelier that this trichobothrial pattern is a synapomorphic character uniting Agelenidae (sensu lato) with Amaurobiidae (excluding Titanoecidae). The traditional Agelenidae may indeed have had multiple origins, by loss of the cribellum, from Amaurobiid-like ancestors; but in the Lehtinen classification, the Dictynidae (properly comprising only the highly specialized Dictyna and relatives) and Hahniidae (properly defined by the highly modified spinnerets and respiratory system of Hahnia, Neoantistea, et al.) are made to include, respectively, Cicurina and Cryphoeca, genera as far removed from those families as they are similar to each other. I regard this as unworkable (see also Forster 1970).

Agelenopsis pennsylvanica (C. Koch)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b.
6072 7028

Agelenopsis potteri (Blackwall)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b.
5725 7403 "Seattle" 8122 8680

Agelenopsis actuosa (Gertsch and Ivie)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b.
"Fort Lewis"

Agelenopsis oregonensis Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b.
6028 6524 7212 7623 7807 7809 8530 8531

Agelenopsis utahana (Chamberlin and Ivie)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b.
6905 7405 "Newman Lake" (7770-7771) 7903 8790 8873 8973

Calilena umatilla Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941b. The original spelling of this name, Calilena umatila, is a lapsus calami and was emended to C. umatilla by Roth (1956), as per ICZN Art. 32 c-d. Umatilla is a geographic name from northeastern Oregon.
6999 7003

§ Calilena sp. #1
Resembles C. stylophora Chamberlin and Ivie. MF in UWBM.
7405

Hololena nedra Chamberlin and Ivie
Agelena curta of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942b.
6505 6999

§ Hololena sp. #1
Distinct from described species. F in UWBM.
5726

Novalena intermedia (Chamberlin and Gertsch)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942b.
5714 5916 7222 7423 7507 7809 8323

§ Novalena sp. #1
Resembles N. lutzi (Gertsch). F in UWBM.
5915 7605 7882

Novalena sp. #2
Possibly the male of species #1.
7003 7008 8372

Tegenaria domestica (Clerck)
Ref.: Roth 1968.
5716 6028 6335 6688 6735 7028 "Shelton" (7130-7231) 7299 7323 7475 7403 7423 7522 7524 7603 7605 7622 7623 7625 7721 7822 7823 "Everett" (7921-7922) 8029 "Port Angeles" (8034-8134) 8323 8378 8530 8680 8629 8724

Tegenaria gigantea Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Roth 1968 (as T. saeva Blackwall).
Crawford and Locket (1976) established T. gigantea as the correct name for this species. Brignoli (1978) proposed T. duellica Simon as a senior synonym and has been followed by Roberts (1985). I regard this synonymy as conjectural; it cannot be tested unless type specimens of T. duellica are found (Merrett et al. 1985).
7224 7323 7325 7417 7421 7422 7423 7428 7521 7522 7523 7525 7622 7623 7722 7821 8530

Tegenaria agrestis (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Roth 1968.
5625 5824 6028 6504 6505 6771 6827 6829 7005 7027 7223 7224 7323 7475 7403 7422 7502 7521 7522 7523 7622 7623 7626 7627 7723 7726 7816 7822 7944 8323
8530

Cybaeina minuta (Banks)
Cybaeus minutus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932.
6335 6336

§ Cybaeota nana Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937; Bennett 1988. Seminal receptacles and genital opening farther forward in my females than in these authors' illustrations.
5714 5915 7008

§ Cybaeota shastae Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937 (under shastae and vancouverana); Bennett 1988. Bennett made C. vancouverana a synonym of C. shastae, but see discussion below. Records given here correspond to C. vancouverana.
6336 7433 7712 7839 8525

§ "Cybaeota" sp. #1
A distinct species; according to R. Bennett (in litt.), it may belong to a new genus. F in MCZ.
8147[MCZ].

§ Cybaeota sp. #2
Near C. shastae (see Chamberlin and Ivie 1937). Excepting one disjunct population in Utah, all records of C. shastae reported by Bennett (1988) were west of the Cascade-Sierra divide. Epigyna of my eastern Washington females resemble the type illustration of C. shastae, but appear distinct from western Washington females (genital opening farther forward). This situation needs further study. F in UWBM.
7107

Cybaeus perditus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932 (F only).
7041

Cybaeus signifer Simon
C. signifer of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932.
6016 6022 6335 6632 7028 7714 7723 7822 7946 8530 8628

§ Cybaeus nr. silicis Barrows
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932. This is possibly a new species, though greatly resembling the eastern C. silicis.
8790

Cybaeus olympiae Exline
Ref.: Exline 1935a (F only). This species, which I have not seen, may well prove a synonym of C. reticulatus.
Exline (1935a): "Olympia" (7028).

Cybaeus reticulatus Simon
C. reticulatus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932.
6022 6121 6122 6335 6336 6338 6524 6632 6717 6719 6721 6822 6918 7018 7028 7131 7220 7223 7234 7235 7319 7414 7416 7417 7433 7518 7520 7523 7620 7621 7623 7624 7711 7714 7718 7722 7723 7730 7732 7931 7934 7938 8015 8118 8119 8122 8216 8511 8517 8518 8522 8523 8525 8617 8618 "Echo Bay" (8728-8729) "Mt. Baker" (8816-8818) 8921

Cybaeus tius Chamberlin and Ivie NEW STATUS
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932 (as C. reticulatus tius).
Chamberlin and Ivie described this form as a new, smaller "variety" (subspecies) with "Longmire, Wisconsin," an obvious error for Longmire, Washington, as type locality. Roth (1952) synonymized the two forms, stating that he had found "a wide range in size" but "no clear indication of two separate groups." My examination of a larger collection showed that while smaller specimens of C. reticulatus occur at higher elevations and latitudes (out of the range of C. tius), where the two are sympatric there is little or no overlap of body size; the size of genitalia, compared by image superposition, separates the two very reliably. There are also slight differences in female genitalic structure; the female depicted by Roth (1952, fig. 22) is apparently C. tius. Frequent sympatry proves these to be full species despite their similarity.
6028 6216 6335 6632 6721 6740 6921 6922 7026 7028 7041 7235 7319 7323 7416 7417 "Renton" (7421-7522) 7433 7518 7519 7522 7524 7536 7616 7619 7620 7621 7623 7722 7723 8034 8118 8119 8123 8213 8217 8518 8520 8522 8525 8624 8921

Cybaeus eutypus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932.
"South Fork Skokomish River" (7331-7432) 7417 7522 7537 7710 7714 7718 7731 7809 7839 7938 8122 8125 8213 8214 8217 8517 8518 8522

Cybaeus morosus Simon
C. morosus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1932.
6016 6022 6519 6639 7028 7034 7219 7417 "Seattle" 7722 8027 "Sekiu" (ca. 8242)

§ Cybaeus multnoma Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (F); Roth 1952 (MF).
7235

Cybaeus bulbosus Exline
Ref.: Exline 1935b (F only).
Exline (1935b): "Newman Lake" (7770-7771).

§ Cybaeus scopulatus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1942a (M); Roth 1952 (F).
6220

Cybaeus chaudius Exline
Ref.: Exline 1935a (F only).
Exline (1935a): "Palouse" (ca. 6970).

§ Cybaeus sp. #1
Resembles C. shoshoneus Chamberlin and Ivie. F in UWBM.
7708

Cybaeus sp. #2
Resembles C. shoshoneus; possibly M of #1.
8999

§ Cybaeus sp. #3
A distinctive species. M in UWBM and MCZ.
8147

§ Cybaeus sp. #4
Related to C. exlineae Chamberlin and Ivie. F in UWBM.
8873

§ Cybaeus sp. #5
Another member of the C. exlineae group. MF in UWBM.
8699 8997

§ Cybaeus sp. #6
Related to C. scopulatus Chamberlin and Ivie. F in UWBM.
7110 7211

Cicurina tersa Simon
C. tersa of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1940.
5714 5915 6335 6721 6905 6928 7008 7107 7108 7110 7220 7323 7417 7519 7521 7522 7524 7621 7623 7718 7722 8029 8119 8215 8517 8520 8921

Cicurina pusilla (Simon)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1940.
6335 6827 6928 7131 7235 7319 7330 7334 7418 7433 7518 7522 7526 7533 7622 7623 7730

§ Cicurina idahoana Chamberlin
C. idahoana of W. Ref.: Chamberlin 1919 (F only). All Washington records of this species (and, in major part, the descriptions) published by Chamberlin and Ivie (1940) and Exline (1936a, 1938) refer to C. sp. #1 (see below).
7205 8999

Cicurina simplex Simon
C. simplex of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1940.
6121 6122 6928 7028 8111 "Echo Bay" (8728-8729)

Cicurina intermedia Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1940.
6804 7008 7405 7703

Cicurina tacoma Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1940 (F only).
Chamberlin and Ivie (1940): "Tacoma" (7224).

Cicurina sp. #1
Ref.: Exline 1936a, 1938 (as C. idahoana). MF in UWBM. This and species #2 have formerly been lumped under C. idahoana. The three are distinct in shape of the epigynal opening, internal female genitalia, and body size.
6429 6723 7028 7313 7319 7330 7438 7518 7520 7622 7623 7718 8123 8921

§ Cicurina sp. #2
Resembles C. idahoana. F in UWBM.
7103 7305 7603 7703 7807 7809 8497 8597

§ Cicurina sp. #3
Resembles C. simplex. F in UWBM.
7882

§ Cicurina sp. #4
Resembles C. intermedia. F in UWBM.
7103

§ Cicurina sp. #5
Resembles C. intermedia. F in UWBM.
6992

§ Cicurina sp. #6
Resembles C. intermedia. F in UWBM.
6704

Cryphoeca "peckhami Simon"
C. peckhami of W. Ref.: Levi and Levi 1955. V. Roth (in litt.) has ascertained that Simon's type specimen of C. peckhami is not congeneric with the peckhami of authors. Roth will soon name the latter, which is undescribed.
5915 5916 6122 6216 6335 6719 6721 6740 6822 6829 6928 7009 7026 7031 7131 7205 7223 7305 7319 7323 7332 7414 7417 7418 7421 7423 7433 7519 7521 7522 7523 7524 7533 7621 7623 7624 7708 7710 7718 7722 7723 7809 7903 7934 8029 8035 8122 8147 8372 8572 8511 8517 8523 8525 8618 8790 8970 8997 8999 8921

Blabomma californicum (Simon)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937 (as B. grandis). Roth (1956) synonymized B. grandis under B. californica [sic]. Since all names ending in the Greek -omma "eye" are neuter, the two names should be B. grande and B. californicum.
6740 7623 8125

§ Blabomma sp. #1
A distinctive species. F in UWBM.
7018

§ Blabomma sp. #2
A minute, very distinctive species. M in UWBM.
7944

Calymmaria emertoni (Simon)
Tegenaria californica of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937 (F non M). MF in UWBM. Chamberlin and Ivie's figure of the male represents an undescribed species (J. Heiss, in litt.), but also closely resembles C. emertoni.
5918 6022 6028 6122 6240 6632 7041 7235 7332 7433 7623 7946 8147 8213 8324 8624

Calymmaria nana (Simon)
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937.
5712 5714 6016 6122 6721 7006 7008 7009 7026 7323 7332 7417 7521 7522 7617 7620 7622 7623 8213 8425 8525

§ Calymmaria suprema Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937.
An introduced population of this Californian species has persisted in the Burke Museum basement since 1978.
7623

§ Ethobuella tuonops Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1937.
6335 6336 6740 7234 7235 7533 7537 7630 7714 7718 7730 7839 8525 8921

Dirksia cinctipes (Banks)
Apostenus cinctipes of W. Ref.: Roth and Brame 1972 (as D. anyphaenoides).
6335 6336 7026 7041 7235 7518 7521 7523 7524 7621 8035 8146 8147 8213 8241 8523 8525 8624

Family GNAPHOSIDAE

Zelotes fratris Chamberlin
Z. subterraneus of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
5714 5915 6016 6022 6121 6804 6805 6992 6900 6905 7008 7018 7020 7026 7211 7305 7507 7520 7623 7783 7703 7882 7821 7903 8029 8272 8241 8372 8497 8572 8597 8694 8698 8624 8786 8790 8873 8997 8999 8921

§ Zelotes sula Lowrie and Gertsch
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
8999

Zelotes hentzi Barrows
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
6688 6991 6900 6901 6902 7099 7299

Zelotes tuobus Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
Platnick and Shadab (1983): "Prosser" (6297).

Zelotes rainier Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
6121 6122 6817 7730 7932

Zelotes josephine Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
7008

Zelotes exiguoides Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
8099 8399

Zelotes puritanus Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1983.
6023 6122 6873 6817 6999 7004 7107 7299 7211 7305 7475 7498 7403 8372

Drassyllus depressus (Emerton)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
6221 6873 6928 7026 7131 7623 7624 7839 8786

Drassyllus lamprus (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
7002

Drassyllus niger (Banks)
D. niger of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
Banks (1896a): "Olympia" (7028), type locality.
Worley (1932): "Orcas Island" (8627-8629) "San Juan Island" (8430-8531) "Lopez Island" (8428-8529).

§ Drassyllus dromeus Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
7783 7882 8399 8694 8794

Drassyllus insularis (Banks)
D. irritans of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
6806 6999 6900 6901 6905 7099 7299 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7303 7498 7696 7601 7603 8694

§ Drassyllus saphes Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1982.
7006 7008

Haplodrassus signifer (C. Koch)
H. signifer of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975b. Platnick and Shadab noted considerable, and possibly species-level, variation in specimens of H. signifer from southwestern North America. The same is true of Washington material. Female epigyna differ considerably in separation of the lateral arms; male palps in overall size and proportions. More material and further study are needed to determine if this is a single, variable species or a complex of siblings.
6999 6900 7006 7107 7385 7498 7601 8895

§ Haplodrassus eunis Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975b.
7211

Orodrassus canadensis Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975b.
5916 6122 7009 7932 7934 8506

Orodrassus coloradensis (Emerton)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975b.
7009 7103 7903 8790 8999

Orodrassus orites Chamberlin and Gertsch
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975b.
6817 6917 7018

Drassodes neglectus (Keyserling)
D. neglectus of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1976.
6817 7429 7783 7934 8786 8999

Drassodes saccatus (Emerton)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1976.
7002 7006 7007 7008 7103 7498 7696 7601 8595 8895

§ Drassodes angulus Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1976.
6806 6901 8595

Herpyllus propinquus Keyserling
H. propinquus of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1977.
6704

Herpyllus hesperolus Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1977.
6999 6900 7099 7103 7385 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7696 8694

§ Scotophaeus blackwallii (Thorell)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1977.
7622 7623

Nodocion voluntarius (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1980. My single female of this species differs somewhat from Platnick and Shadab's figure.
7305

Nodocion mateonus Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1980.
Platnick and Shadab (1980): "Spearfish" (ca. 5611).

Poecilochroa montana Emerton
P. montana of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1981 (under Sergiolus). Platnick and Shadab separated Sergiolus from Nodocion by presence in the former of a "fundamentally transverse abdominal color pattern" but ignored the equally valid hypothesis that this same character unites Sergiolus with Poecilochroa.
5712 5916 6221 6505 6704 6817 7103 7107 7303 7305 7475 7421 7693 7622 7723 7731 7822 8099 8410 8572 8786

Poecilochroa columbiana Emerton
P. columbiana of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1981 (under Sergiolus).
6934 7099 7002 7131 7783 7882 7809 8029 8694

Gnaphosa clara (Keyserling)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
Platnick and Shadab (1975a): "Coulee City" (ca. 7692).

Gnaphosa muscorum (L. Koch)
G. gigantea of W. Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
6817 7103 7475 "Seattle" 7783 7833 7934 8497 8572 8587 8597 8694 8699 8786 8997 8999

Gnaphosa brumalis Thorell
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
8699

Gnaphosa parvula Banks
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
Platnick and Shadab (1975a): "Friday Harbor" (8530) "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494).

Gnaphosa snohomish Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
7517

Gnaphosa californica Banks
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1975a.
6488 6992 7099 7006 7008 7103 7299 7385 7498 7696 7602 8895

Callilepis pluto Banks
C. imbecilla of W. Ref.: Platnick 1975.
6122 6216 7006 7007 7008 7507 7703 8572

Callilepis eremella Chamberlin
Ref.: Platnick 1975.
6122 7103 7107 7211

§ Callilepis sp. #1
Resembles C. eremella, but differs in epigynum, color, and shape of sternum. The epigynum resembles that illustrated for Callilepis altitudonis Chamberlin (1936), considered a synonym of C. eremella by Platnick (1975).
7003

§ Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall)
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1988; Kaston 1948, under M. montana. Platnick and Shadab indicated Washington occurrence of four Micaria species, but presented verifiable records only for M. foxi.
5715 6028 6122 6221 6806 6992 7131 7211 7305 7332 7593 7623 7708 7903 8201 8572 8521 8970

Micaria constricta Emerton
M. constricta of W. Ref.: Emerton 1894-95; Platnick and Shadab 1988; Crawford and Edwards in press. Gertsch and Jellison (1939), believing Micaria constricta Emerton, 1894, preoccupied by M. constricta L. Koch, 1876, proposed the new name M. hesperella for the former. However, the L. Koch name is a nomen nudum and, being unavailable, does not enter into homonymy (ICZN Articles 53c and 54). Thus, M. hesperella is an objective junior synonym of M. constricta.
This species as treated here is at least polytypic and possibly conceals two or more siblings. Most males fall into two size classes which also differ (but not altogether consistently) in size of palp, shape of embolus base, and spination of cymbium. Since these do not always correlate with female differences (which are also considerable), and since both types occur in most long series, I have provisionally considered them conspecific.
6122 6817 7018 7414 7934 8699 8706 8970 8974 8999

§ Micaria rossica Thorell
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1988.
6873 6826 8029 8999

§ Micaria coloradensis Banks
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1988.
7003 7009 7103 7105

Micaria foxi Gertsch
Ref.: Gertsch 1933b (M only); Platnick and Shadab 1988. 6496 7099 7498 7696 7601

§ Micaria utahna Gertsch
Ref.: Gertsch 1933b (M only); Platnick and Shadab 1988.
6682[MCZ] 6992 8895

§ Micaria aenea Thorell
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1951 (M, as M. tetonia); Lowrie and Gertsch 1955 (F, as tetonia); Platnick and Shadab 1988.
7305 8790 8970

§ Micaria idana Platnick and Shadab
Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1988.
6122

Family ZORIDAE

This strange group, sometimes listed under Clubionidae, has been treated separately by earlier authors (e.g., Dahl and Dahl 1927) as well as by Lehtinen (1967), Kaston (1977), and Brignoli (1983). A species-level revision is needed to explore intrafamilial relationships.

§ Zora sp. #1
This species is closer to the European Zora nemoralis (Blackwall), as described by Locket and Millidge (1951), than it is to the eastern North American Z. pumila (Hentz), as described by Kaston (1948). MF in UWBM.
5712 5715 7008

Family CLUBIONIDAE

Lehtinen (1967) noted that the traditional Clubionidae is probably polyphyletic, and this may well be correct, as different elements of the family have only negative characters in common. However, no one has made a concrete proposal of a substitute classification. Lehtinen proposed a family Liocranidae, containing Agroeca (see below) and other genera, but this group still lacks a formal definition. Phrurotimpus, Scotinella, and related genera were listed in Gnaphosidae, subfamily Micariinae by Brignoli (1983), following a statement by Lehtinen that "most of their characters largely agree." Since these genera lack the depressed endites (present in Micaria) considered synapomorphic for Gnaphosidae, they probably do not belong there. Likewise, most recent authors have separated Anyphaenidae from Clubionidae, but I consider this inconsistent. As long as Clubionidae is maintained in its present heterogeneous form, it is fully capable of accommodating Anyphaena and relatives. The separation has been based on two characters: the respiratory system and claw tufts (Platnick 1974; Dondale and Redner 1982). It is known that closely related spiders can have distinctly different respiratory systems (see, e.g., Millidge 1986). The peculiar claw tufts are certainly a defining character for the group, but this is irrelevant to whether the taxon is a family or subfamily. It seems best to me to leave all these genera in the Clubionidae pending a carefully researched reclassification of the entire group.

Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
6192 6292 6794[MCZ] 6992 6905 7099 7507

§ Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
7623

§ Clubiona marna Roddy
Ref.: Roddy 1966.
6028 7303 8680

§ Clubiona moesta Banks
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
6704 6805 6806 8497 8680

Clubiona trivialis C. Koch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
6740 8506 8617

§ Clubiona kastoni Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
7328 7433

Clubiona mutata Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
8572

§ Clubiona mimula Chamberlin
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
5712 5714 7110

Clubiona canadensis Emerton
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Roddy 1973.
7414 8572

Clubiona pacifica Banks
C. pacifica of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Roddy 1973. Dondale and Redner noted their inability to distinguish females of C. pacifica and C. canadensis; but the female C. pacifica they illustrated are atypical. All females seen by me resemble figs. 7-8 of Roddy (1973) and are not difficult to distinguish from C. canadensis females.
5620 5916 6018 6022 6335 6522 6740 6934 7026 7103 7131 7222 7227 7234 7319 7332 7418 7421 7423 7530 7623 7624 7643 7718 7721 7728 7730 7821 7931 7934 8122 8139[MCZ] 8146 8147 8395 8317 8425 8517 8520 8522 8523 8525 8790 8873 8970 8921

Clubiona norvegica Strand
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
6438 6639 7026 7475 8146 8147[MCZ] 8790

§ Clubiona riparia L. Koch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Edwards 1958.
6905 8372

Clubiona lutescens Westring
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Roddy 1966.
7420[MCZ] 7622 7623 7721 7722 7723 7822

Clubiona pallidula (Clerck)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Roddy 1966.
Roddy (1966): "Seattle."

Castianeira longipalpa (Hentz)
C. descripta, C. media, and C. pacifica of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Reiskind 1969.
6504 6992 6999 7199 7403 7405 7502 7623 7624 7807 7839

Castianeira walsinghami (O. Pickard-Cambridge)
C. walsinghami of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Reiskind 1969.
Worley (1932): "Friday Harbor" (8530) "Spieden Island" (8631).

Agroeca ornata Banks
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Kaston 1938.
5714 5715 7110 7211

Agroeca nr. pratensis Emerton
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Kaston 1938. F (UWBM) differs from typical A. pratensis in posterior part of epigynal septum. Dondale and Redner presented a map dot in central Washington for A. pratensis which may also refer to this form.
6403 6804

Agroeca trivittata (Keyserling)
Hilke trivittata of W. Ref.: Kaston 1938.
Worley (1932): "Blakely Island" (8527-8528).

Agroeca sp. #1
Very similar to A. ornata but much smaller and with minor male palp differences. MF in UWBM.
8790

Trachelas californicus Banks
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Platnick and Shadab 1974. My single male is a much closer match for Dondale and Redner's illustrations.
6028

Phrurotimpus parallelus (Chamberlin)
Phrurolithus parallelus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin 1921 (M only). MF in UWBM.
6022 6504 6804 6900 7099 7103 7403 7504 7603 8595

§ Phrurotimpus borealis (Emerton)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982.
5620 5714 5715 6934 7131 7234 7328 7475 7593 7623 8201 8395 8597

§ Phrurotimpus certus Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982.
6709 7703 7903 8099 8399

Scotinella pugnata (Emerton)
Phruronellus pugnatus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Gertsch 1941 (under Phrurolithus). Lehtinen (1967) listed Scotinella as a synonym of Phrurolithus without giving reasons, and has been followed by Brignoli (1983). Dondale and Redner (1982) maintained that the two genera are distinct, also without presenting specific evidence. I follow North American usage pending availability of better information.
Banks (1896a): "Washington."
Worley (1932): "Olympia" (7028).

Scotinella sculleni (Gertsch)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Gertsch 1941 (under Phrurolithus).
6829 7303 7332 8372 8786

§ Scotinella sp. #1
Resembles S. sculleni. F in UWBM.
7475 8399 8497

§ Scotinella sp. #2
Possibly not a true Scotinella; may represent a new or extralimital genus. F in UWBM.
8399 8694

Anyphaena pacifica (Banks)
A. pacifica of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Platnick 1974.
6122 6221 6505 6814[MCZ] 6992 6999 6910[MCZ] 7006 7008 7299 7303 7403 7602

§ Anyphaena californica (Banks)
A. ruens of W. Ref.: Platnick 1974.
7783

Anyphaena aperta (Banks)
A. aperta of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1982; Platnick 1974.
6934 7328 7623 7723 8029

Family THOMISIDAE

The two major North Temperate subfamilies of this family, Thomisinae and Philodrominae, were raised to family status by Homann (1975); this has been followed by Kaston (1977), Dondale and Redner (1978b), Brignoli (1983), and others, but is rejected here. Dondale and Redner cited such differences as relative leg length, development of eye tubercles, type of body hair, and habitat. But these differences in themselves are not relevant to family or subfamily ranking of the two taxa. To support a two-family classification, synapomorphic characters must be found that link them more closely with other taxa than with each other. Two classes of such characters were listed by Homann: the fine structure of the eyes in both groups, and the relatively advanced development of early instars in Philodrominae. I feel that both types of character are subject to convergent evolution, and against them must be set the many similarities that support placing the two groups in the same family. Among these are: laterigrade legs; relatively flat, broad carapace; eye arrangement (so far as I know, the combination of very small circular eyes, widely separated, with the posterior row much wider than the anterior is not found in other families); eye tubercles (often absent in Philodrominae but present, e.g., in Philodromus rufus pacificus); clearly defined and to some extent homologous carapace setae (Schick 1965); and many closely similar details of prey capture and courtship behavior (particularly the "bridal veil" type of courtship). Moreover, no new subfamilies are being proposed for the new families. The subfamily category is too useful to discard without cause.
     Nearly all the Washington Thomisidae were described and illustrated by Dondale and Redner (1978b). The illustrations are very good, but the usefulness of the descriptions is marred by nearly universal use of the formula "Female... general structure and color essentially as in male," which is seldom entirely correct and in dimorphic species (such as Misumena vatia) is quite inappropriate. There is also little discussion of variation, or comparison with extralimital taxa. Thus, I have also cited descriptions in other works.

Subfamily THOMISINAE

Misumena vatia (Clerck)
M. vatia of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965.
5914 5915 6083 6016 6178[MCZ] 6216 6221 6504 6519 6639 6717 6739 6814[MCZ] 6817 6821 6822 6827 6828 6829 6928 7009 7028 7103 7105 7107 7108 7131 7210 7211 7212 7223 7303 7305 7330 7332 7475 7403 7414 7417 7519 7522 7604 7618 7623 7703 7719 7721 7722 7723 7730 7882 7809 7818 7931 7934 8122 8139 8147 8201 8213 8241 8372 8323 8324 8347 8572 8597 8530 8970 8972 8973 8918

Tmarus angulatus (Walckenaer)
Possibly Tmarus sp. of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965.
Gertsch (1939): "Olympia" (7028).

Misumenoides formosipes (Walckenaer)
M. aleatorius of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965.
Worley (1932): "Everett" (7921-8022) "Hummil Lake, Orcas Island," probably an error for Hummel Lake, Lopez Island (8528) "Friday Harbor" (8530) "Mt. Constitution" (8628).

Misumenops lepidus (Thorell)
M. celer and M. lepidus of W. Ref.: Schick 1965. This species, confused with M. celer for many years, was carefully distinguished by Schick; in spite of which, Dondale and Redner (1978b) listed it as a synonym of M. celer without comment. SYNONYMY REJECTED. Based on much Washington material and some from Iowa and Arizona (all at UWBM), I confirm Schick's conclusion and modify his diagnosis of M. lepidus as follows: color and spination as described by Schick; embolus more evenly curved, starts and ends farther basally than in M. celer; cymbium with smaller retrolateral bulge; RTA more acute; cymbium tip rounded (vs. truncate in M. celer); epigynal hood more convex. Dondale and Redner's (1978b) illustrations of the male M. celer appear to be M. lepidus.
6397 6488 6496 6497 6504 6688 6605 6704 6894 6804 6991 6992 6999 7099 7006 7299 7303 7475 7498 7403 7696 8201 8300 8497 8597 8698

Misumenops celer (Hentz)
Probably M. diegoi of W. Ref.: Schick 1965.
6178[MCZ] 6496 7299 7592

Misumenops importunus (Keyserling)
Ref.: Schick 1965.
Schick (1965): "Fort Lewis."

§ Misumenops sierrensis Schick
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965.
7105 7108 7207 7208 7303 7403 7506 7507 7604 7903

§ Misumenops sp. #1
Close to M. lepidus. M in UWBM.
6504

§ Misumenops sp. #2
Close to M. sierrensis. MF in UWBM.
7703

Coriarachne brunneipes Banks
C. brunneipes of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965; Bowling and Sauer 1975.
5914 6083 6122 6221 6827 7027 7028 7131 7323 7522 7623 7723 7818 "Everett" (7921-7922) 8323 8530

Coriarachne utahensis (Gertsch)
Xysticus versicolor of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965; Bowling and Sauer 1975.
5916 6072 6221 6505 6519 6704 6827 7006 7028 7222 7617 7783 8099 8999

Ozyptila praticola (C. Koch)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975b, 1978b.
7623

Ozyptila conspurcata Thorell
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975b, 1978b.
5714

§ Ozyptila beaufortensis Strand
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975b, 1978b.
6504

Ozyptila pacifica Banks
O. pacifica of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975b, 1978b.
6023 6740 7518 7708 7730 7815 8214 8617

Xysticus gulosus Keyserling
X. gulosus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965. Individuals of X. gulosus from the Wenatchee River valley (7403-7405) are unusually large and may prove to be a distinct species.
6297 6804 6999 7403 7404 7405

Xysticus pretiosus Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
5915 6023 6335 6771 6873 7234 7235 7319 7332 7607 7616 7623 7633 7839 8147[MCZ] 8395 8618 8921

Xysticus locuples Keyserling
X. locuples of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
6221 6717 6817 6900 7429 7833 7839 7903 7934 8214 8597 8699

§ Xysticus gosiutus Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
5712 5714 5715 7622 7931[MCZ]

§ Xysticus chippewa Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
8572

§ Xysticus discursans Keyserling
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965. Gertsch (1939) repeated Worley's (1932) Washington record of this species from "Ashford," not recognizing that this is the same specimen he elsewhere recorded under X. labradorensis (see appendix).
6892 6992

§ Xysticus emertoni Keyserling
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
8698 8999

§ Xysticus ferox (Hentz)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
8572

§ Xysticus gertschi Schick
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
6597 6804 6992

Xysticus cunctator Thorell
X. californicus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965; Schick 1965, discussed under X. californicus. Great care is needed to distinguish this common species from X. californicus Keyserling, which may occur in Washington although not yet recorded. Nearly all differences shown in the illustrations of these two species by Turnbull et al. are submerged by individual variation. Only the apical sclerite of the palp (their figs. 60, 63) provides good characters, and to see this properly the palp must be expanded or the apical sclerite teased out with a needle. X. cunctator is so variable that additional sibling species may yet be discovered.
6083 6221 6386 6488 6597 6504 6538 6540 6685[MCZ] 6688 6873 6804 6805 6973 6999 6900 6904 7099 7006 7009 7028 7299 7475 7498 7403 "Seattle" "Spokane" (7673-7674) 7693 7696 7697 7601 7822 8029 8241 8597 8530 8687

Xysticus punctatus Keyserling
X. formosus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
Worley (1932): "San Juan Island" (8430-8531) "Blakely Island" (8527-8528).

Xysticus montanensis Keyserling
X. montanensis of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965. This species is extraordinarily variable, and further data may show that it needs to be split.
6122 6240 6335 6814[MCZ] 6992 6901 7099 7008 7018 7020 7027 7028 7299 7305 7421 "Seattle" 7533 7809 8029 8122 8506 8624

Xysticus benefactor Keyserling
X. benefactor of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965. Females of X. benefactor are difficult to identify from these authors' illustrations. In most of my specimens, the central atrium of the epigynum is deeper and more clearly defined, with the anterior arcs shorter and meeting; the spermathecae are often longer and subrectangular.
5714 6178[MCZ] 6122 6817 7305 7604 7607 8572

§ Xysticus luctuosus (Blackwall)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965; Gertsch 1939 (under X. lutulentus). My one female does not closely match the illustrations of Dondale and Redner; the atrium is wider than high, not higher than wide. Gertsch's illustration is closer.
7721 8970

Xysticus nigromaculatus Keyserling
X. nigromaculatus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Turnbull et al. 1965.
Worley (1932), Gertsch (1939): "Yakima River, opposite Ellensburg" (ca. 6905).

Subfamily PHILODROMINAE

Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale 1961.
6504 6892 6804 6992 7107 7475 7498 7593 7502 7520 7693 8099 8372

Philodromus spectabilis Keyserling
P. spectabilis of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale 1961.
6016 6221 6709 6817 7211 7575 7603 7623 7809 7903 8597 8818

§ Philodromus pernix Blackwall
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale 1961.
8790

Philodromus californicus Keyserling
Possibly P. californicus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale 1961.
6072 8099

Philodromus dispar Walckenaer
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1969, 1978b.
6028 7323 7423 7520 7521 7522 7524 7621 7622 7623 7722 7723 8323

Philodromus histrio (Latreille)
P. virescens of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975a, 1978b. Washington material of this species supports Dondale and Redner's (1975a) conclusion that the subspecies defined by Schick (1965) are not valid.
6297 6386 6488 "Yakima" (6504-6605) 6685 6688 6805 6992 6999 6900 7098 7099 7299 7303 "Grand Coulee" (7593-7694) 8597 8694 8895

Philodromus mysticus Dondale and Redner
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975a, 1978b.
Dondale and Redner 1975a: "St. Helens Lake" (6221-6321). 7009[MCZ]

Philodromus alascensis Keyserling
P. inquisitor of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975a, 1978b.
"Yakima River Canyon" (6704-6804) 6717 6992 7018 7414 7633 7730 7833 7932 7934 8317 8506 8511 8818 8970 8918

§ Philodromus insperatus Schick
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
"Wenas Creek" (6706-6807) 6894 6804 6992 7299 7498 7403 8694

Philodromus rufus Walckenaer, subsp. pacificus Banks
P. rufus and P. pacificus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
5716 5916 6016 6022 6221 6335 6717 6740 6817 6829 6917 7009 7026 7027 7108 7110 7131 7211 7305 7323 7332 7417 7429 7433 7507 7524 7604 7623 7710 7730 7809 7821 7822 7839 7903 7931[MCZ] 8029 8122 8147[MCZ] 8241 8372 8497 8572 8618 8790 8872 8818 8970 8973 8997 8921

§ Philodromus peninsulanus Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
6504

§ Philodromus quercicola Schick
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968.
7507

§ Philodromus speciosus Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
7809

§ Philodromus oneida Levi
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
6016

Philodromus rodecki Gertsch and Jellison
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b. The male from 7105 is dubiously placed in this species, as the palp shows several differences from that illustrated by Dondale and Redner. A female from 7623 is positively identified.
7105 7623

Philodromus satullus Keyserling
P. satullus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
Worley (1932): "Wawawai" (ca. 6673).

Philodromus josemitensis Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968, 1978b.
7131

§ Philodromus nr. schicki Dondale and Redner
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1968. My Washington female is similar in most respects to the Californian type but differs notably in color from both it and P. josemitensis.
7328

§ Philodromus sp. #1
A member of the P. josemitensis complex, differing from the others in genitalia and strikingly in color. F in UWBM.
6072 7703

Ebo pepinensis Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale & Redner 1978b; Sauer and Platnick 1972.
Sauer and Platnick (1972): "Olympia" (7028).
Ebo nr. parabolis Schick
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Sauer and Platnick 1972. My specimens key to E. parabolis, but the male embolus arch and female spermathecae are not a good match for the published illustrations.
6386 6488 7099 7696

Thanatus striatus C. Koch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale et al. 1964.
6873 7385 8572

Thanatus coloradensis Keyserling
T. coloradensis of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale et al. 1964. The second reference is much more helpful in distinguishing this species from T. formicinus.
6894

Thanatus formicinus (Clerck)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale et al. 1964.
6303 7008 7105 7211 7404 7601 8182 8699

Thanatus altimontis Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Dondale et al. 1964.
6292 6688 6704 6708 6992 6900 7696

§ Tibellus maritimus (Menge)
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b.
7475 8973

Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer)
T. oblongus of W. Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b.
5714 5716 5718 6083 6028 6292 6216 6221 6319 6335 6336 6504 6522 6632 6639 6771 6740 6894 6804 6805 6822 6826 6828 6992 6907 6928 7099 7006 7027 7028 7199 7105 7107 7108 7133 7208 7212 7235 7399 7303 7305 7332 7475 7498 7403 7421 7423 7575 7593 7507 7518 7523 7693 7603 7605 7607 7622 7623 7783 7703 7723 7822 7823 7901 8099 8029 8042 8122 8125 8201 8214 8216 8241 8372 8572 8505 8530 8790 8873 8973 8921

§ Tibellus gertschi Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b.
6386 6894 7498 7592

§ Tibellus chamberlini Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1978b; Schick 1965.
6397 6496 6992 7696

Apollophanes margareta Lowrie and Gertsch
Ref.: Dondale and Redner 1975c, 1978b.
5714 5916 6221 6717 6817 7475 7403 7902 8412 "Palmer Mountain" (8895-8896)

Family SALTICIDAE

Unfortunately, the only illustrated descriptions for many jumping spider species are those of Peckham and Peckham (1909). The illustrations in this work (by J.H. Emerton) were excellent for their time, but structures were often oversimplified or misinterpreted, and some species apparently had sexes mismatched. Also, the potential exists in this family for numerous species with similar genitalia, which differ in color and other sexual display characters. Thus, many salticid identifications must be considered tentative pending completion of modern revisionary work.

Phidippus johnsonii (Peckham and Peckham)
P. johnsoni of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909.
6122 6673 6605 6894 6804 6805 6827 6991 6999 6900 6902 6905 7099 7006 7027 7028 7199 7103 7106 7107 7108 7110 7131 7133 7211 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7330 7331 7332 7498 7403 7429 7504 7520 "Seattle" 7683 7696 7601 7605 7618 7783 7839 7903 7925 7932 8182 8497 8572 8600 8631 8786 8896

Phidippus clarus Keyserling
P. clarus of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909; Kaston 1948. The color variation in this species is
astonishing.
5626 6221 6581[MCZ] 6504 6682[MCZ] 6685[MCZ] 6826 6827 6992 6905 7099 7199 7234 7593

§ Phidippus audax (Hentz)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909; Kaston 1948.
6479 7722 (second record probably adventitious)

§ Phidippus borealis Banks
Ref.: Gertsch 1934b (M); Levi and Levi 1951 (F), both under P. altanus Gertsch (synonymy by Edwards, 1977).
8572

§ Phidippus cardinalis (Hentz)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909.
6072 6771

§ Phidippus sp. #1
A distinctive very large gray species, resembling (in the male palp) P. kaibabensis Gertsch. Specimens have been identified as P. octopunctatus (Peckham and Peckham) but the latter has a very different color pattern (Peckham and Peckham 1909). MF in UWBM.
6192 6292 6682[MCZ] 6999 7593

§ Phidippus sp. #3
Related to P. nikites Chamberlin and Ivie. F in UWBM.
8999

Eris militaris (Hentz)
Dendryphantes marginatus of W. Ref.: Maddison 1986.
5919 6083 6028 6417 6528 6905 6910[MCZ] 7028 7211 7323 7332 7405 7421 7433 7507 7603 7618 7622 7623 7721 7723 8346 8572 8520 8973

§ Eris nigromaculata (Keyserling)
Ref.: Kaston 1973. Washington specimens bear a closer resemblance to the illustrations by Emerton (1909) under the synonym Dendryphantes jeffersoni Emerton.
6122 6814[MCZ] 7018 8999
Note: the genus Metaphidippus of authors will be radically reclassified in papers in preparation by W. Maddison (in litt.).

Metaphidippus aeneolus (Curtis)
Dendryphantes aeneolus of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (F). The illustration of M is highly inaccurate; true M resembles M. insignis (Banks), for which see Kaston 1948.
5915 6083 6016 6022 6178[MCZ] 6278[MCZ] 6216 6221 6402 6504[MCZ] 6704 6717 6817 6829 6904 6910[MCZ] 6928 7007 7028 7032 7108 7110 7211 7305 7315 7498 7420[MCZ] 7421 7433 7502 7507 7522 7603 7604 7623 7703 7723 7730 7809 7833 7839 7931[MCZ] 7936 8316 8497 8572 8597 8818

§ Metaphidippus clematus Levi and Levi
Ref.: Levi and Levi 1951. The embolus is narrower than in the male illustrated by Levi and Levi, but this represents geographic variation (W. Maddison, in litt.).
6504 6804 6805 8299 8597

Metaphidippus mannii (Peckham and Peckham)
Dendryphantes imperialis of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (under D. imperialis). The oldest synonym, M. mannii, replaces the preoccupied name imperialis (Richman and Roth 1976). Our form is a subspecies, M. mannii versicolor (Peckham and Peckham), according to W. Maddison ( in litt.).
5714 6910[MCZ] 6928 7131 7403 7502 7506 7622 7623 8617

§ Metaphidippus flavipedes (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Kaston 1973.
8790

Metaphidippus californicus (Peckham and Peckham)
Dendryphantes guttatus of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909.
"Friday Harbor, 19 July-8 August 1984" (8530) [MCZ]

§ Metaphidippus mylothrus (Chamberlin)
Ref.: Chamberlin 1925 (M only). MF in UWBM. There are considerable differences between the palps of the two males so far found in Washington.
7833 7932

§ Metaphidippus unicus (Chamberlin and Gertsch)
Ref.: Gertsch and Riechert 1976 (M). MF in UWBM (identified, F tentatively, by W. Maddison).
6292 7099

§ Metaphidippus helenae (Banks)
Ref.: Cutler and Jennings 1985.
6293[MCZ] 6488 6597 6682[MCZ] 6794[MCZ] 6992 6999 7099 7299 7693

Metaphidippus harfordii (Peckham and Peckham)
Dendryphantes harfordi of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (their fig. 6 of the male palp is somewhat inaccurate; fig. 6b represents the true female whereas 6a is probably M. albeolus).
7623

§ Metaphidippus albeolus Chamberlin and Ivie
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941a.
6336 6828 7319 7517 7521 7522 7622 7623 7721 7821 8029 8122 8139[MCZ] 8146[MCZ] 8147[MCZ]

Metaphidippus watonus Chamberlin and Ivie
Dendryphantes pallidus Exline, 1937 NEW SYNONYM
Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941a. D. pallidus was published as a nomen nudum by Exline (1937). The unpublished description (Exline 1936b) leaves no doubt of the synonymy.
5716 6504[MCZ] 6704

§ Metaphidippus sp. #1
Near M. mylothrus (Chamberlin). F in UWBM.
6682[MCZ] 6805 6900 7385 7683 7696

§ Metaphidippus sp. #9
Near M. californicus (Peckham and Peckham). F in MCZ.
6910[MCZ]

§ Metaphidippus sp. #10
This species will soon be named by W. Maddison (in litt.). MF in MCZ.
"Spokane, Sept. 1945, E. D. Palmer" [MCZ]

Sassacus papenhoei Peckham and Peckham
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909, Levi and Field 1954. The species is scarcely recognizable from the original illustrations, but those of Levi and Field match Washington specimens fairly well; unpublished figures (kindly supplied by W. Maddison) are a perfect match.
6293[MCZ] 6397 6496 6504 6682[MCZ] 6794[MCZ] 6894 6991 6992 6905 7403 7592

Sassacus vitis (Cockerell)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (under Icius). Hill (1979) transferred this species to Sassacus.
6581[MCZ] 6504 6685[MCZ] 6794[MCZ] 6704[MCZ] 6894 6804 6992 7099 7498 7592 7502 7693

Tutelina similis (Banks)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909; Kaston 1948 (under Icius). I am not at all certain that the foregoing descriptions apply entirely to T. similis, but Washington specimens correspond closely to the original description by Banks (1895a), and Olympia (7028) is part of the composite type locality.
6704[MCZ] 6992 7131 7703

Tutelina elegans (Hentz)
Icius elegans of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909; Kaston 1948 (under Icius). Washington records of this and the following species will have to be rechecked when a modern revision of the genus is done.
Worley (1932): "Pullman" (6771).

Tutelina hartii (Emerton)
Icius harti of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909; Kaston 1948 (under Icius).
Worley (1932): "Seattle."

Salticus scenicus (Clerck)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909.
5626 5923 6240 6504 6505 6519 6822 6828 6905 6934 7028 7105 7131 7403 7420[MCZ] 7423 7429 7518 7621 7622 7623 7624 7714 7723 7822 8122 8317 8323 8572 8518 8530 8629

Salticus peckhamae (Cockerell)
S. peckhami of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909.
6685[MCZ] 7107 7593 7693

Neon reticulatus (Blackwall)
N. nelli of W. Ref.: Gertsch and Ivie 1955.
6022 6028 6829 6928 7332 7521 7522 7623 7722 7839 8147 8921

§ Neon sp. #1
Related to N. pixii Gertsch and Ivie. F in UWBM.
5714

§ Euophrys nr. monadnock Emerton
Ref.: Emerton 1891. Epigynal septum of my female much narrower than in published figure.
8399

§ Euophrys sp. #1
Related to E. diminutus (Banks). F in UWBM.
7696

Talavera minuta (Banks)
T. minuta of W. Ref.: Kaston 1948.
Banks (1895a): "Olympia" (7028). Although Olympia is the type locality, this species is not otherwise known from the Northwest.

§ Synageles sp. #1
Specimen needs more study; F in MCZ.
6704[MCZ]

§ Marchena minuta (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Maddison 1987. The male palps illustrated for this species and its synonym, M. sissonii (Peckham and Peckham) by Peckham and Peckham (1909) bear remarkably little resemblance to those illustrated by Maddison and seen by me. The specimen cited below is the basis of Maddison's Washington map dot.
6910[MCZ]

Sitticus lineolatus (Grube)
Sittacus ranieri of W. Ref.: Prószynski 1971; Peckham and Peckham 1909 (under S. ranieri [sic]).
6817 7018 7934 8970

Sitticus palustris (Peckham and Peckham)
Sittacus palustris and S. morosus of W. Ref.: Prószynski 1980 (as subspecies of S. floricola). W. Maddison (pers. comm.) considers S. palustris to be a full species. Prószynski synonymized S. morosus under S. palustris.
6216 "Seattle" 7931[MCZ] 8372

§ Sitticus sylvestris (Emerton)
The original description of S. sylvestris by Emerton (1891, under Attus) is not illustrated. UWBM specimens and unpublished drawings (supplied by W. Maddison) from eastern North America closely match figs. 49-52 of Prószynski (1980), of North American specimens tentatively referred by him to Sitticus rupicola (C. Koch).
6072 6704[MCZ] 7783

§ Sitticus dorsatus (Banks)
Ref.: Gertsch and Mulaik 1936, under S. absolutus Gertsch and Mulaik; synonymy by Richman (1979).
7403

§ Sitticus sp. #2
F (in UWBM) resembles the figure of S. finschii (L. Koch) published by Levi and Levi (1951), but not that published by Prószynski (1968).
7009

Evarcha hoyi (Peckham and Peckham)
Pellenes hoyi of W. Ref.: Kaston 1948.
5714 5915 6016 6028 6178[MCZ] 6122 6335 6519 6528 6632 6639 6704[MCZ] 6814[MCZ] 6822 6827 6905 6906 6907 6928 6934 7027 7028 7034 7107 7108 7131 7235 7305 7313 7328 7475 7422 7429 7593 7507 7518 7605 7607 7617 7623 7643 7723 7903 7931[MCZ] 8122 8147 8372 8410 8572 8529 8617

§ Pellenes lagganii Peckham and Peckham
P. laggani of W. Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (M); Levi and Levi 1951 (F).
6178[MCZ] 7633 8970

§ Pellenes shoshonensis Gertsch
Ref.: Lowrie and Gertsch 1955 (M only).
7006

§ Pellenes sp. #1
Related to P. levii Lowrie and Gertsch. M in UWBM.
7099

§ Habronattus amicus (Peckham and Peckham)
Pellenes mundus and P. umatillus of W. Ref.: Griswold 1987. The genus Habronattus has been considered by Lowrie and Gertsch (1955) and most recent authors as a subgenus of Pellenes; I concur with Griswold (1987) in making Habronattus a full genus.
6397 6488 6597 8300

§ Habronattus superciliosus (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Peckham and Peckham 1909 (F only). MF in UWBM. Females, very close to the description of H. superciliosus (which Griswold 1987 was unable to place), have been taken in Washington with males close to H. amicus; the male coloration (described under Pellenes umatillus, a synonym of H. amicus, by Exline 1936b) and details of the palp and epigynum differ from H. amicus as described by Griswold (1987).
6893 6999 6900 7697 7601

Habronattus hirsutus (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Griswold 1987. Washington females have the sides of the epigynal atrium farther separated than in Griswold's illustration.
6072 6794[MCZ] 6814[MCZ] 6900 6910[MCZ] 7006 7103 7107 7110 "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494) 7403 7602 7998

Habronattus oregonensis (Peckham and Peckham)
Pellenes oregonensis of W. Ref.: Griswold 1987; Peckham and Peckham 1909. The epigynum of Washington females differs from that illustrated by these authors in that the central pocket is smaller and closer to the epigastric furrow.
6709 6822 7105 7211 7331 8317

§ Habronattus jucundus (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Griswold 1987.
5916 6178[MCZ] 6814[MCZ]

§ Habronattus festus (Peckham and Peckham)
Ref.: Griswold 1987 (M); Peckham and Peckham 1909 (F, under Pellenes griseus). The description of Habronattus brunneus (Peckham and Peckham) by Exline (1936b) indicates that her specimens (from "Grand Coulee," 7593-7694), when examined, will probably prove to be H. festus. The females cited below are very close to the Peckhams' description under the synonym P. griseus.
6894 6992

Habronattus decorus (Blackwall)
Ref.: Kaston 1948; Griswold 1987 (not illustrated). The description of Washington specimens by Exline (1936b) agrees with Griswold's.
Peckham and Peckham (1909): "Pullman" (6771).
Exline (1936b): "Soap Lake" (ca. 7494).

Habronattus americanus (Keyserling)
Pellenes americanus of W. Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941a (under Pellenes nigripes); Griswold 1987.
6240 6814[MCZ] 6815 6817 6992 7009[MCZ] 7107 7603 7783 7882 7923

§ Habronattus kubai (Griswold) NEW COMBINATION
Ref.: Griswold 1979 (under Pellenes). Griswold (1987) treated H. kubai and other forms (presumably including my species #3) as synonymous with H. sansoni, leaving open the question of whether this is one species or several. Washington material sorts unequivocally into three species which differ in ornamentation (both sexes), ecology, and distribution; SYNONYMY REJECTED.
5916 6016

Habronattus sansoni (Emerton)
Ref.: Emerton 1915 (under Pellenes). Not Griswold (1987); his illustrations refer to H. kubai.
7103 7403 8201

§ Habronattus sp. #1
Affinities uncertain; F in UWBM.
6581

§ Habronattus sp. #2
H. americanus group; M with red carapace tufts. F in MCZ.
8241[MCZ]

§ Habronattus sp. #3
Related to H. sansoni. M in MCZ and UWBM.
6704[MCZ] 7006

Platycryptus californicus (Peckham and Peckham)
Marpissa californica of W. Ref.: Barnes 1958 (under Metacyrba). Hill (1979) transferred this species to his new genus Platycryptus.
6083 6504[MCZ] 6893 7028 7323 "North Fork Skokomish River" (7331-7332) 7403 7523 7623 7723 "Everett" (7921-8022) 8099 8530

Metacyrba taeniola (Hentz)
Ref.: Barnes 1958.
Exline (1936b): "Wenatchee" (7403).


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