An Annotated Checklist of the Spiders of Washington [1988]

Appendix: Species Excluded from Checklist


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The following list includes spider species whose Washington records result from misidentifications or incorrect locality data as well as others whose only Washington records, while possibly correct, are unverifiable. In each case the source of the record is given with brief indication of why it is rejected. The object is to provide a sound basis for excluding these unreliable data from future lists and revisions. The sequence of families and genera is the same as in the main list. Names that are synonyms of species in the main checklist are for the most part not given here.

Family DIPLURIDAE

Euagrus rubrigularis Simon. The record from Olympia (7028) given by Worley (1932) is certainly a false identification (possibly of Hexura picea). Although this species was described from Idaho, the types, from the notoriously mislabelled George Marx collection, probably came from Mexico (Gertsch 1961).

Family DYSDERIDAE

Dysdera crocata C. Koch. Listed by Worley (1932) because it was said by Petrunkevitch (1911) to occur in "all States"; there are no Washington records.

Family ULOBORIDAE

Hyptiotes cavatus (Hentz). The records given by Worley (1932) are misidentifications of H. gertschi Chamberlin and Ivie.

Family DICTYNIDAE

Dictyna sancta Gertsch. Jones (1948) gave two eastern Washington localities for this species. Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958) cited Jones' paper under this species, but failed to give the Washington records in a list of "Known Records." I think it better not to list this species until this confusion is cleared up.

Dictyna foliacea (Hentz). The Washington records by Worley (1932) are probably misidentifications of D. minuta (Emerton).

Dictyna volucripes Keyserling. Jones (1948) gave a number of Washington records for this species. The distribution as given by Chamberlin and Gertsch (1958) makes Washington occurrence unlikely, although they cited Jones' paper under this species.

Dictyna sublata (Hentz). Listed by Worley (1932) because it was said by Petrunkevitch (1911) to occur in "all States"; there are no Washington records.

Family TITANOECIDAE

Titanoeca americana Emerton. Listed (under Amaurobius) by Worley (1932); doubtless a misidentification of T. nigrella (Chamberlin).

Family AMAUROBIIDAE

Callobius olympus (Chamberlin and Ivie). Chamberlin (1947) recorded this species from "Olympia," 7028, but Leech (1972) excluded this record without discussion.

Callobius bennetti (Blackwall). An eastern species recorded (under Amaurobius) by Worley (1932), which must be a misidentification of some Washington species.

Family PHOLCIDAE

Psilochorus cornutus (Keyserling). This species, described from "Washington" by Keyserling (1887), is based on specimens from Washington, District of Columbia (V. Roth, in litt.).

Family ARANEIDAE

Cyrtophora californiensis Keyserling. The Worley (1932) record from Olympia is an error for Metellina curtisi (McCook) (Levi 1980).

Zygiella montana (C. Koch). Recorded from "Mt. Rainier" by Emerton (1920, under Zilla); all North American records of this species were referred to Z. nearctica Gertsch by Gertsch (1964) and to Z. dispar (Kulczynski) by Levi (1974a). Whichever interpretation is accepted, the Washington record must refer to Z. dispar.

Tetragnatha straminea Emerton. The eastern Washington records of this species by Exline (1936b) are undoubtedly misidentifications; it is not now known from western North America (Levi 1981).

Argiope aurantia Lucas. Exline (1936b) included this species on the strength of a record from Oregon, but there are still no Washington records.

Eustala anastera (Walckenaer). A dot in southeastern Washington appears on the distribution map for this species by Levi (1977a), but he presented no verifiable record.

Metepeira labyrinthea (Hentz). Washington records of this eastern species by Worley (1932) and Exline (1936b) probably refer to M. grandiosa Chamberlin and Ivie (Levi 1977b).

Araneus angulatus Clerck. According to Levi (1971), all North American records of this species, including those of Emerton (1920) and Worley (1932), are spurious.

Aculepeira carbonaria (L. Koch). Recorded under Araneus by Exline (1936b); North American records of this species belong elsewhere (Levi 1977b).

Aculepeira aculeata (Emerton). Emerton (1920, under Epeira) recorded this species from "Mt. Rainier"; Levi (1977b) considers it a synonym of A. packardii (Thorell), but see my comments under the latter.

Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck). Many Washington records of this presumably Palaearctic species (under Araneus) by Worley (1932) and Exline (1936b) all refer to A. displicata (Hentz) (Levi 1974b).

Family THERIDIIDAE

Enoplognatha tecta (Keyserling). According to Levi (1957a), the Washington records of this species by Worley (1932) represent E. marmorata (Hentz). A Washington record by Levi and Randolph (1975) is of uncertain origin, probably a lapsus calami.

Crustulina guttata (Wider). Worley (1932) recorded this species from Pullman (6771); Levi (1957b) considered all western records under this name to refer to C. sticta.

Steatoda corollata (Linné). All North American records of this species, including those of Worley (1932, under Lithyphantes), are referable to S. albomaculata (de Geer) (Levi 1957b).

Steatoda borealis (Hentz). This eastern species was recorded by Worley (1932); such western records are misidentifications of S. hespera Chamberlin and Ivie (Levi 1957b).

Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius). All western records of this species, including a number from Washington, refer to L. hesperus Chamberlin and Ivie (Kaston 1970).

Theridion aurantium Emerton. Worley (1932) listed this species because of a record (apparently authentic) from Victoria, British Columbia; T. aurantium still has not been found in Washington.

Theridion pictum (Walckenaer). Washington was cited in the distribution summary given for this species by Levi and Randolph (1975), but no such record was given by Levi (1957a, under T. ornatum Hahn), the apparent source of Levi and Randolph's data.

Family LINYPHIIDAE

Tachygyna pallida Chamberlin and Ivie. A northeast Washington map dot presented for this species by Millidge (1984b) was not accompanied by a verifiable record.

Scotinotylus antennatus (O. Pickard-Cambridge). The Washington record of this species given by Bishop and Crosby (1938) refers to S. eutypus (Chamberlin) according to Millidge (1981a).

Spirembolus synopticus Crosby. The Washington record of this species given by Crosby (in Chamberlin 1925), and repeated by others, apparently has been referred to S. spirotubus (Banks) by Millidge (1980).

Lepthyphantes subalpinus (Emerton). The record from "Mt. Rainier" by Emerton (1920) is almost certainly an error for the similar L. rainieri Emerton, not described until 1926.

Linyphia lineata (Linné). All North American records of this species, including that of Worley (1932), are referable to Stemonyphantes blauveltae Gertsch.

Linyphia banksi Petrunkevitch. This species, described from Olympia (7028), proved (Levi 1972) to be a synonym of the orbweaver Hypsosinga variabilis.

Linyphia diana Keyserling. This name, listed from "Seattle" and "Mt. Rainier" by Emerton (1920), is an incorrect subsequent spelling (lapsus calami) for Neriene digna (Keyserling).

Linyphia phrygiana C. Koch. Reported from "Mt. Rainier" by Emerton (1920), this is an error for one of our native Pityohyphantes species, probably P. tacoma Chamberlin and Ivie.

Family LYCOSIDAE

Arctosa cinerea (Fabricius). The record from Wawawai by Worley (1932) is undoubtedly an error for A. littoralis (Hentz).

Arctosa emertoni Gertsch. Two Washington map dots presented for this species by Dondale and Redner (1983) were unaccompanied by verifiable records.

Schizocosa avida (Walckenaer). Washington and other western records of this species (under Lycosa) by Worley (1932) and others are misidentifications of other Schizocosa species (Dondale and Redner 1978a).

Pardosa sternalis (Thorell). Bonnet (1958) included Washington in a geographic summary for this species, based on Worley's (1932) listing of P. vancouveri Emerton, which was then considered a synonym. There are no Washington records for true P. sternalis.

Pardosa groenlandica (Thorell). See main checklist under P. lowriei and P. tristis.

Pardosa modica (Blackwall). In view of the chaotic past application of this name (Kronestedt 1981), its listing (based on an Oregon record) by Worley (1932) must be considered unreliable.

Pardosa fuscula (Thorell). Dondale and Redner (1987) presented a northeastern Washington map dot for this species, but no verifiable records. Lowrie (1973) referred to finding P. fuscula "in the Blue Mountains of Washington (Target Meadows)." Target Meadows is in Oregon.

Pardosa hetchi Chamberlin and Ivie. Lowrie (1973) mentioned Washington occurrence of this species, but no Washington records or map dots were given by Lowrie and Dondale (1981).

Family AGELENIDAE

Agelenopsis californicus (Banks). Recorded (under Agelena) by Worley (1932) from the San Juan Islands; Exline (1938) stated that "his specimens belong elsewhere."

Agelenopsis naevia (Walckenaer). Recorded (under Agelena) by Emerton (1920) from "Mt. Rainier" and "Seattle," and by Worley (1932) from Olympia; all western records of this species were considered spurious by Chamberlin and Ivie (1941b).

Hololena curta (McCook). The species so recorded (under Agelena) by Worley (1932) and Exline (1938) is Hololena nedra Chamberlin and Ivie (1942b).

Calymmaria californica (Banks). Recorded (under Tegenaria) by Worley (1932) and Exline (1936c); these records refer to C. emertoni (Simon) (Chamberlin and Ivie 1937).

Calymmaria quadrata (Exline) (1936c) is a synonym of C. emertoni (Simon) (V. Roth, in litt.).

Family GNAPHOSIDAE

Zelotes subterraneus (C. Koch). All North American records are misidentified Z. fratris Chamberlin and other species (Platnick and Shadab 1983).

Drassyllus notonus Chamberlin. Ubick and Roth (1973) listed Washington as part of this species' distribution, but Platnick and Shadab (1982), who had access to the same collections, did not repeat the record.

Drassyllus lepidus (Banks). Listed from Washington under the synonym D. mephisto Chamberlin by Ubick and Roth (1973); record not repeated by Platnick and Shadab (1982).

Orodrassus vastus (Banks). Platnick and Shadab (1975c) found the types of this species (from "Olympia," 7028) to be immatures of Gnaphosa and Drassodes; they considered it a nomen dubium.

Herpyllus bensonae Fox. Both Bonnet (1957) and Ubick and Roth (1973) listed this species from Washington even though the original locality, as clearly stated by Fox (1938), was "Washington, D.C." As a matter of fact, even that record resulted from a false label; the species occurs in Mexico (Platnick and Shadab 1977).

Callilepis imbecilla (Keyserling). Washington records of this species by Worley (1932) and others are misidentifications of C. pluto Banks (Platnick and Shadab 1975b).

Family CLUBIONIDAE

Castianeira descripta (Hentz). A record of this eastern species from Friday Harbor (8530) by Worley (1932) is probably an error for C. longipalpa (Hentz).

Family THOMISIDAE

Coriarachne versicolor (Keyserling). The Washington records by Emerton (1920) and (under Xysticus) by Worley (1932) are almost certainly errors for C. utahensis.

Xysticus auctificus Keyserling. A southern species, whose Washington record from Olympia (Worley 1932) is an error for X. pretiosus Gertsch (Gertsch 1939).

Xysticus labradorensis Keyserling and Xysticus rugosus Buckle and Redner. A Xysticus specimen collected by Emerton at "Ashford" (6720) in 1905 has had a checkered history. Emerton (1920, 1921) reported it as X. bimaculatus Emerton, for which X. rugosus is the valid replacement name. Worley (1932) reported it under X. discursans Keyserling. Gertsch (1939) reported it under X. labradorensis, of which he considered X. bimaculatus a synonym, and inadvertently also repeated Worley's record of the same specimen under X. discursans. Buckle and Redner (1964) stated that the record under X. labradorensis was an error, but wrongly attributed this to Emerton; they did not refer to this record under X. rugosus. The specimen (at MCZ) should be rechecked to determine its true identity.

Xysticus californicus Keyserling. Washington records of this species by Emerton (1920), Worley (1932), and others all refer to X. cunctator Keyserling.

Philodromus praelustris Keyserling. The record of this Rocky Mountain species from Olympia by Worley (1932) is doubtful.

Thanatus rubicellus Mello-Leitão. Recorded from Ellensburg by Worley (1932) under the preoccupied senior synonym T. rubicundus Keyserling. This record must be considered unreliable due to the great difficulty of recognizing species in this genus.

Family SALTICIDAE

Metaphidippus glacialis (Scheffer). This is a synonym of M. arizonensis (Peckham and Peckham), according to Cutler and Jennings (1985). The Washington records by Exline (1936b) are undoubtedly misidentifications of M. helenae (Banks).

Metaphidippus montanus (Emerton). The records (under Dendryphantes) by Worley (1932) and Exline (1936b) are doubtless misidentifications of M. aeneolus (Curtis).

Icius delectus. Worley's (1932) use of this unpublished name constitutes a nomen nudum of uncertain application.

Neon nellii Peckham and Peckham. The record of this species from Olympia by Worley (1932) and, by implication, those from Seattle and Friday Harbor by Exline (1936b) were referred to N. reticulatus (Blackwall) by Gertsch and Ivie (1955).

Habronattus hutchinsonii (Peckham and Peckham) was synonymized under H. tarsalis (Banks) by Griswold (1987), but it is likely that the records from "Wenass V." [Wenas Valley] (6705-6806) by Peckham and Peckham (1909) and "Ellensburg along the Yakima River" (ca. 6905) by Exline (1936b) refer to H. hirsutus. The description of H. hutchinsonii females by Exline (1936b) and the figure of the epigynum by Peckham and Peckham (1909) both agree with females of H. hirsutus in UWBM.

Habronattus brunneus (Peckham and Peckham). The Washington record by Exline (1936b) probably refers to H. festus (q.v.).

Habronattus borealis (Banks). Presently known distribution (Griswold 1987) makes the records by Worley (1932) from "Klikitat" [Klickitat] (5811), "Wenas" (6805-6806), "Olympia" (7028), and "Loon Lake" (ca. 8076) appear unlikely.


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